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It was there Smith was killed by a mob. Among these was the authority to create a "body of independent militarymen". Twenty Mormon militiamen and many Native Americans died in the Walker War. The History of the Church records, “The Legion paraded at the Masonic Hall field one day … then moved for drillings to ‘the ground near Spencer’s northeast of the Temple”‘ the next.16. From Smith’s ornate sword to his favorite horse, “Jo Duncan,”   Young mirrored his slain predecessor. I prayed to God to help me bless my steps. At its peak, the militia had, by conservative estimates, at least 2,500 troops, in comparison to the approximately 8,500 troops within the entire United States Army as of 1845. “Bringing up the rear were 1840s carriages, covered wagons, and the medical van,” Sister Ritchie said. The is a copy of it in front of the center. But none question that the Nauvoo Legion had shown its applauding visitors that May day in Nauvoo that it had grown into a veritable army, ten times the size of the 9th Regiment of Hancock County. This force was a militia similar to others in Illino… He urged Legion members to not take any action when the Illinois governor ordered the arrests of the Smith brothers, for violating state statutes and by not receiving Distinguished guests stood between the soldiers. But of the, Smith penned, “Highly delighted.”15, It was not until June 18, 1844, that General Smith moved from the sidelines to once again take command of a large parade and “with my staff rode in front of the Legion, marched up Main Street, and returned to our former parade ground.”  This was the last parade Joseph Smith would lead. By noon, the military entourage had reached the temple grounds in Nauvoo. The veterans who fired the salute were under the command of Captain George Tall. [citation needed] (Antonga Black Hawk was a Ute and has no connection to the Illinois Sauk chief Black Hawk of the 1830s.) These "valley counties" initially encompassed only a small portion of the area of Deseret and were expanded as settlement grew. The original Nauvoo Legion may have used the flag. Organized under Illinois law, the Nauvoo Legion was a … Only the entrance of the 1st cohort (horse troops) turned their gaze. General Smith took special notice of the imposing display of spears, lances, and bayonets. This flag was saluted with canon fire and than accompanied the Nauvoo legion as it made its solemn sacred march up mauholland street to the laying ceremony. There are however some reported incidents in diaries of Saints concerning gunfire exchange between legion members and mobs during the Nauvoo era (citation needed). Ibid, 4:502; Times and Seasons, February 15, 1842. Hoping to keep their fears at bay, General Smith ordered all pomp, ceremony, and sham battles replaced with small company drills, company inspections, and company parades. Albumen silver print of a lithograph. It may have also been used by the Mormon Battalion in the U.S. Army during the Mexican–American War (1846–1847). It was nicknamed the "Old Sow" and is on display at the Church History Museum in Salt Lake City. Among those who accepted was Judge Stephen A. Douglas and thousands of other visitors streamed in Nauvoo before sunup on May 7, in wagons, carriages, skiffs, riverboats, and steamers. With growing antagonism from surrounding settlements it came to have as its main function the defense of Nauvoo, and surrounding Latter Day Saint areas of settlement. As he reviewed the soldiers, “the governor, General J. J. Hardin and staff” looked on. Sutter wrote a letter to the pioneer society in the 1870s where he said that his cannons, except for one Russian 4 pounder, which he donated to a museum in San Francisco, were all Spanish guns. The legislature initially formed six counties, which covered only inhabited valleys. NAUVOO, Ill. — LDS Church members and friends marched in a procession down the Parley Street "Trail of Hope" on Feb. 4 to commemorate the pioneer exodus from Nauvoo in 1846. Many of them took time to pan for gold and they were quite successful. History records more parades, drills, and mustering’s held in the weeks following Smith’s death than in the preceding two years. Although its size, 5’x4′ was pretentious if not ostentatious, it was not size that caused the applauding crowd of eight thousand to pause. Rather than employ the Legion to protect Nauvoo from increased mob violence, Young directed Nauvoo's tens of thousands of citizens to migrate peacefully to the western part of the continent which wasn't yet part of the United States and they founded the territory of Utah. He took command of the soldiers and ordered them into formation. Hartvigsen thinks it is even possible that the flag may have even been used earlier during the Missouri persecutions. The Nauvoo Legion was called up again in the Utah War against Federal troops entering Utah in the "Utah Expedition" from 1857–1858. When the Mormon Battalion was enlisted in July, 1846, about 450 Model 1816 muskets were issued to the infantry. In 1838 the Missouri militia had contemplated a court-martial against Smith, an action that might have been illegal had it been carried out, as Smith was only a civilian at that time. At 3:00pm Legionnaires took their positions on the battlefield. Four Presidents served under its banner - Martin Van Buren (1837-1841), William Henry Harrison (1841), John Tyler (1841-1845), and James Polk (1845-1849). Most participants wore pioneer clothing and walked the one-mile route; others rode in horse-drawn wagons. It arrived in Salt Lake in 1852. We became the last row of d flags in a hurry. An area memorialized by the somber Far West cemetery and LDS Temple. Led by Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement and a mayor of Nauvoo, the Legion quickly became a formidable concentration of military power. Feeling confident in his military prowess and that of the legionnaires, General Smith invited state and local leaders to attend the May 7, 1842, parade. But there were problems. The Legion tended to be very top-heavy, in that there was a disproportionate number of high-ranking officers to regular soldiers. We were encouraged to wear costumes. Tom Simpson photo . Graphic Violence ; Graphic Sexual Content ; texts. [citation needed]. CHL. The Illinois state legislature granted Nauvoo a liberal city charter that gave the Nauvoo Legion extraordinary independence even though it was still a component of the Illinois State Militia and under the ultimate authority of the Governor of Illinois. After General Smith inspected the military formation, nodding his approval, he ordered the Legionnaires to advance to the temple grounds. This rank is one step above Major General, which most contemporary militias employed as their commanding rank. He recalled crimes perpetrated against Latter-day Saints in Missouri and assured all present that in enduring “those scenes of tribulation, his confidence, his courage and his joy had been increasing instead of diminishing.”  He cautioned exuberant Legionnaires “not to usurp authority, but to obey as they are commanded and directed; to honor, not the world, but Him that is alive and regins.”5, Then, on cue, architects laid a cornerstone of the temple in its proper place. Tanner Trust Fund, University of Utah Library, 1980 found online at: Learn how and when to remove this template message, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, https://collections.lib.utah.edu/details?id=328944, http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cdm/ref/collection/BYUIBooks/id/3168, "Uniforms and Equipment of the Black Hawk War and the Mormon War", "Nauvoo Legion, 1840–1845 — A Unique Military Organization", "Series 2210: Territorial Militia Records, 1849–1877, 1905–[ca.1917]", List of Reorganized Restorationist churches, Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite) history, Doctrine and Covenants (Book of Commandments), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nauvoo_Legion&oldid=1000193416, History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Military units and formations established in 1840, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Utah, Articles lacking in-text citations from May 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Protect Mormon settlers from domestic and foreign enemies, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 01:45. When they resumed their journey home, they bought two cannons from Sutter, a four pounder and a six pounder. People carried flags that represented the countries that they came from. “General Bennett next requested me to take my station in the rear of the cavalry, without my staff, during the engagement; but this was counteracted by Captain A. P. Rockwood, commander of my life guards, who kept close to my side,” wrote Smith. Indeed, the legion became so popular that many non-Mormons joined the ranks. A carronade, a ship cannon, was purchased by the legion in Nauvoo. A 6-pound iron cannon, probably the other battalion cannon and a smaller, but similar, 2 pound cannon were in the warehouse. Those representing the Nauvoo Legion led the parade and did the flag raising. Legion survival after death of Joseph Smith. I could barely keep up and was falling behind. The Nauvoo Legion never gathered again, and the 1887 Edmunds-Tucker Act permanently disbanded it. An exact description of the Nauvoo Legion flag (1841-1845) is not available. The Legion’s main purpose, according to JS, was to protect the city from mobs and enforce city ordinances and state laws. On December 16 the governor signed it into law, granting Smith and the city of Nauvoo broad powers. This flag was saluted with canon fire and than accompanied the Nauvoo legion as it made its solemn sacred march up mauholland street to … An exact description of the Nauvoo Legion flag (1841-1845) is not available. by authority by Nauvoo Legion (Ill.) . The difference in the gathering was the “spit and polished” look of the armaments they carried. At the Legion parade, Brigham Young wore the uniform of the late Lieutenant General Joseph Smith. Following these flag bearers came other people walking—many families—and some participants riding in horse-drawn buggies and wagons. Flag. As the band played, flags topped with brass-colored eagles were held aloft. The 1st cohort was under the command of General Wilson Law and the 2nd under the direction of General Charles C. Rich. None of the colorful banners garnered the surprise element as did the flag carried by the Legion Band. The Legion was followed by flag bearers from different countries of those that migrated here to join the church. The one exception was Lieutenant General Smith, who declined to be an active participant in the battle. They employed tactics of supply destruction and avoided direct fighting. The alleged Nauvoo Legion Flag. Although the charter authorizing the Nauvoo Legion created an independent militia, it could be used at the disposal of the state governor or the President of the United States as well as for the mayor of Nauvoo. When July mustering ended, many assumed that parading was over, but not so. I was worried about walking all that way. Today the mountain howitzer is on display in the Fort Douglas museum in Salt Lake City. Not long after the arrival of the Mormons in Iowa, in 1846, Mormon legionnaires volunteered to serve in the 500 man Mormon Battalion for the U.S. government military expedition to Mexican California during the Mexican–American War. Few Legionnaires at this, their last parade, walked with heads held high and even fewer recalled the boastful days when Hosea Stout’s poem of greatness applied: They’ll find that Illinois firm in her place will stand. Young led the Latter-day Saints to what later became the Territory of Utah. In 2001 three Spanish guns were identified in the LDS Church storage facility in Salt Lake City. Salt Lake City Utah USA Museum of Church History Nauvoo Legion Flag - Territorial Flag & United States Flag Wagon illustration, Happy Pioneer Day text. The Nauvoo Legion survived the loss of its commanding officer, Joseph Smith, when Brigham Young automatically assumed command as the new church president in August 1844, though he had never previously been active in Legion activities because Young was in England on a proselytizing mission for several years and only returned home to Nauvoo when hearing of the prophet's death to assist the family and church and citizens of Nauvoo during that sad tragedy (citation needed). The LDS Church was incorporated and a militia, based on the Nauvoo Legion, was formed. The flag was respectfully received and the occasion hailed by more cannon fire. After the men were released from service in 1847, they headed for home, many stopping for temporary employment at Sutter's Fort. At its peak, it is said to have numbered 5,000 men, the largest such body in Illinois. Participants ranged in age … 6 of their group built the mill at Coloma, where gold was discovered. Records for the weapons issued to the other companies are missing. “We doubt whether the like was presented in any other city in the western country,” remarked General Smith.13, Other parades in 1842-1843 echoed the confidence of the May parade. Posted by Julie L. Mellby on July 14, 2012 | 1 Comment. Young, Brigham, and Everett L. Cooley. One motive for the higher rank was to prevent Smith from being tried in a court-martial by officers of lesser rank. This military force was a militia similar to the Illinois State Militia, and it became known as the "Nauvoo Legion". General Smith announced that Sidney Rigdon, a member of the First Presidency of the Church, would speak to the assembled audience. Voter-conscious Illinois Democrats and Whigs (including Abraham Lincoln) passed a bipartisan city-state charter for Nauvoo in 1840. 1. People came from all over the US to be part of the parade. Previously, from May to June 1834 Joseph Smith led an expedition of Latter Day Saints, known as Zion's Camp from Kirtland, Ohio to Clay County, Missouri in an attempt to regain land from which the Saints had been expelled by non-Mormon settlers. [citation needed]. Graphic Arts Collection. The Legion flag of the 1850s had thirteen stars and stripes, symbolic of the United States flag. Revised laws of the Nauvoo Legion, from the constitution of the United States. Gen. Joseph Smith, no date, original 1888. These were thought at that time to have come from Sutter's purchase of the Russian Fort Ross and to have been either Russian or French cannons. Times and Seasons, 1839-1846 [Nauvoo, Illinois] 2, no. At 10:00am Major General Bennett made a grand entrance to his brightly colored uniform with plumb atop a chapeau. Nine days later, on June 27, he was murdered in Carthage, Illinois. On July 4, 1837, "The 26-Star Flag" became the official flag of the United States. Flag this item for. Major General Bennett, Brigadiers Law and Smith, the aides-de-camp, and invited guests followed close behind. To their surprise, the afternoon house were filled with the dedication of three more temple cornerstones. Bishop J. H. Hale, 88-91, as cited in Glen M. Leonard, Nauvoo: A Place of Peace, a People of Promise (Salt Lake City; Deseret Book Company, 2002), 118. Legionnaires made a credible and soldier-like appearance with but on notable flaw. It was the signal eye, symbolic of the all-seeing eye of God that led onlookers to wonder aloud about the direction and purpose of the militia on parade. Neither the Legion nor any other Mormon troops participated in the main theaters of the war, and the Legion's involvement ended in 1862, after Congress had passed the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act.[5]. The city charter: laws, ordinances, and acts of the City Council of the City of Nauvoo. With his permission, two units of the reorganized Nauvoo Legion were gainfully employed by the United States to protect western mail and telegraph lines from Indian attacks in what is today Utah and Wyoming, but saw no action. Curious guests lingered near the temple grounds hoping that artillery fire, sword exercises, and a sham battle would follow. GA 2012- in process. This flintlock musket was an American built copy of the French 1777 Musket Model. At 9:30am cannon blasts signaled the arrival of, or as the Times and Seasons reported “gave an appropriate salute” to, Lieutenant General Joseph Smith, commander-in-chief.2  A silk flag – “The 26-Star Flag”3 was presented to General Smith by a delegation of ladies. They were not disappointed. On that date, soldiers again gathered at an early hour at the parade grounds. Upon the revocation of the Nauvoo Charter in the winter of 1844–1845, the Nauvoo Legion was no longer recognized as state militia, and its members returned the majority of its government-issued arms. [citation needed]. I decide to try I asked God to bless me. The soil deed started a fast pace . authorized permission to impose martial law from the Governor of Illinois. During the American Civil War, federal troops either were withdrawn from Utah, or in many cases left to join the rebellion, Johnston who had led the invading federal army being among the latter group. In 1839, Joseph Smith relocated his followers—the Mormons—from a hostile environment in Missouri to Commerce, Illinois which he renamed Nauvoo. Next came the walkers, with some dressed in 1840s clothing. It began at precisely 7:30am when artillery fire announced the arrival at the parade grounds of Brigadier Generals Wilson Law and Don Carlos Smith and their respective cohorts. In their wake marched military musicians under the apt baton of Captain Edward P. Duzette. April 6, [Tuesday] 1841 – At an early hour the several companies comprising the “Nauvoo Legion,” with two volunteer companies for Iowa Territory, making sixteen companies in all, assembled at their several places of rendezvous, and were conducted in due order to the ground assigned for general review.1. There Legion officers with their staffs formed an inner square while the infantry and cavalry formed an outer square. Whether on parade or the battlefield, soldiers of Nauvoo gave new meaning to a well-equipped and capable fighting militia. Shop high-quality unique Nauvoo T-Shirts designed and sold by artists. At 8:00am cannon fire announced that Major General John C. Bennett and his staff were being escorted to their posts and taking command of the 650 assembled Legionnaires. Federal troops dispatched in response to the 1870 Ghost Dance ensured Shaffer's order was enforced. 6 “A Proclamation, to the Saints Scattered Abroad,” Times and Seasons, 15 Jan. 1841, 2:274; JS, Journal, 4 July and 14 Aug. 1842; JS History, vol. MS 3430, fd. All three Spanish cannons, which were brought to Salt Lake City on pallets, were mounted on carriages copied from the mountain howitzer carriage, probably in preparation for the Mormon defense against Johnston's army in 1857. The Federal government made a reconciliatory approach to Brigham Young, requesting his help. My marching picked up. Behind them came missionaries and members carrying flags of many of the nations from which the pioneer residents of Nauvoo had come. In 1839, Joseph Smith relocated his followers from a hostile environment in Missouri to Commerce, Illinois, which he renamed Nauvoo. Twenty or so men including Mark were the Nauvoo Legion and marched with guns and ammo sacks (all pretend) at the head of the crowd. After this conflict, the Federal government appointed Utah's territorial governor, and the Nauvoo Legion was allowed to exist at the command of the governor. And, faithfully, sustain us, in peace upon her land. The main plot is not really worth to be mentioned. They were led by a flag bearer and drummer boy followed by a contingent dressed as the Nauvoo Legion. He organized the first Mormon militia group known as the "Armies of Israel" to protect his people. However, on June 27, 1844, the Carthage Greys were vastly outnumbered by the mob surrounding the jail, and did not intervene in the ensuing assassination. Nauvoo Legion, Records, 1841–1845. In the 1849 conflicts with Native Americans in Utah County, such as the attack at Battle Creek, Utah and Battle at Fort Utah, foreshadowed the 1853–1854 Walker War between the Nauvoo Legion and Indians led by Chief Walkara ("Walker"). Mark walked for 2 of his great grandfathers but also walked for Truman O. Angell who was part of the Nauvoo Legion and one of my relatives. Utah (/ ˈ juː t ɑː / YOO-tah, / ˈ juː t ɔː / YOO-taw) is a state in the Western United States.It is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south and Nevada to the west. The waving Legion flags,4 the state flag of Illinois, and the famed red, white, and blue of the United States produced the desired effect – patriotic pride. Upwards of eleven thousand visitors stood near the parade grounds waiting for the military events to begin. In 1844, after a controversy where the In Utah, the Deseret Militia and Utah Territorial Militia used the official name of the Nauvoo Legion. It also touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. In 1894, the former Utah Territorial Militia was reactivated and officially designated the Utah National Guard. A few light cannons were also attached. The Nauvoo Legion was permanently disbanded in 1887. Last Public Address of Lieutenant General Joseph Smith.jpg 624 × 791; 310 KB. Of a company parade held on September 10, 1842, General Smith wrote, “this was the day for the training of the companies of the Nauvoo Legion; and lest I should be observed … I kept very still.”14 Without Joseph Smith reviewing the troops in his splendid military regalia, small parades attracted little attention. Personal arms were also used. Early that morning the sisters presented to Joseph Smith and the Nauvoo Legion a silk flag with 27 stars representing each state in the union at that time. Sister McCleod walked by me. It was not until 1:00pm that he dismissed the soldiers, advising them to make ready for a sham battle. 4 (Winter 11957): 398. Although Legionnaires sorely grieved his death, they did not end their parading. The Nauvoo Legion was a state-authorized militia of the city of Nauvoo, Illinois, United States. NauvooLegion.jpg 470 × 364; 73 KB. 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