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Religious syncretism at its best is not old truths in new guise or just old or new truths confused; rather, through a creative dialectic, new religious insights have been born. But these encounters are not necessarily The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church ». Much of the research that has been done on syncretism focuses heavily on the religious aspect, but this paper will combine religion with art. One was from the Caribbean area, primarily Cuba and Puerto Rico, into Florida. Latin America's Christian Democratic Parties-Edward A. Lynch 1993 A comprehensive examination of Latin America's Christian Democratic parties from their nineteenth-century origins to the 1990s. Cristo-Paganism. Handbook of Middle American Indians 6, 1967, pp. With the introduction of another culture, the Africans, into this New World, the pantheon just grew bigger.The Christians had not only the Indigenous idolatry to contend with, but they also had the deities of this other culture, the Africans, and their syncretism with the Indigenous culture to compete with. ». All Rights Reserved. Religion, View all related items in Oxford Reference », Search for: 'Christianity in Latin America' in Oxford Reference ». Religion in Latin America is characterized by the historical predominance of Catholic Christianity, increasing Protestant influence, as well as by the presence of other world religions. The conquest was in reality incomplete, as evidenced by the enduring presence of indigenous religion mixed with Catholic beliefs and rituals, a practice known variously as ‘folk Catholicism’, ‘religious syncretism’ or ‘creolized religion’ that is still common in regions that have large indigenous populations, such as southern Mexico, Guatemala, Ecuador, and Peru. By the time that most Latin American countries gained their independence in the early 19th cent. Starting with perhaps the most popular of dual identity Christian deities, the Virgen de Guadalupe is an example of this phenomenon. Viewing the RC Church as a conservative and atavistic competitor for power, the new liberal national governments sought to replace their citizens' loyalty to the Church with nationalism. MESTIZAJE AND RELIGIOUS CELEBRATIONS IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN Posted on April 10, 2017 by Catalina Hernandez-Cabal Young and Wickstrom, 2014. The conquistadors were fired by a medieval devotion to the extension of Christendom. • Describe how the devotion to the Virgen de Guadalupe has maintained indigenous religious traditions in Latin America through religious syncretism. The syncretism between Christian and Umbanda religion gives us Our Lady of the Seafaring. Much of the research that has been done on syncretism focuses heavily on the religious aspect, but this paper will combine religion with art. Herbert Richardson phrases the need for such creative interpenetration very nicely: “Christianity has been a Western religion too long. Americas, The Changing Face of Latin America and the Caribbean. Once again, in Brazil, Yemanja is one of the seven orixas of the African Pantheon and is also known as the Queen of the Ocean. While on the surface, Christian gods and deities such as saints and virgins were accepted by the Indians, they continued to worship their own gods in secrecy. Syncretism is not a new phenomenon. Winn, Peter. Latin America. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984. syncretism. 369-492. Contrasts with antecedent saint cults in 16th‐century Spain demonstrate the “Mayan‐ness” of this syncretism; comparison with saint cults in other Maya communities relates syncretism more closely to local contexts of community morality than to enduring “deep structures” of some primordial Maya culture or to a “false consciousness” born of persistent colonialist oppression. PRINTED FROM OXFORD REFERENCE (www.oxfordreference.com). MESTIZAJE AND RELIGIOUS CELEBRATIONS IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN Posted on April 10, 2017 by Catalina Hernandez-Cabal Young and Wickstrom, 2014. The continent of Africa has been home to hundreds of indigenous tribes speaking a wide variety of languages and believing a wide variety of different spiritual ideas. in  relocation diffusion. Identify one way that Christianity in Latin America demonstrated religious syncretism. Jesus, especially as Christianity continues to grow in Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Religious syncretism exhibits blending of two or more religious belief systems into a new system, or the incorporation into a religious tradition of beliefs from unrelated traditions. Berkley: University of California Press, 2006. After years of using force the Catholic monks and friars had to come to the realization that Christianity as a monotheistic religion was just not something that the Indigenous population embraced. The Vatican granted to Spain and Portugal the patronato real de las Indias, which gave their sovereigns the right to appoint all bishops within their territories, sealing the bond between the Church and Crown. The early missionary orders who worked to convert America's great native peoples—the Aztecs of Mexico, the Incas of Peru, the Maya of Guatemala and Yucatán—met with initial resistance, but eventually proved successful, both through coercion and what Bartolomé de Las Casas called ‘peaceful persuasion’, in converting the indigenous people from their pre-hispanic polytheistic religions to Christianity. Syncretism; Madsden, William. D) Christian saints replacing pre-Christian gods, and celebration of Carnival in Brazil E) All of the choices are examples of syncretic religion in Latin America Latin America, Christianity in  Christian , spiritist , and other beliefs and practices derived frem European sources. by Lewis Loflin. • Make reference to the course readings (ATTACHED), the film The Other Conquest, … Latin America faces environmental crises that directly affect the health and well-being of its people, especially the poor. took place across Latin America with the introduction of a new faith as well as the ancient syncretism between the indigenous cultures. Religious syncretism at its best is not old truths in new guise or just old or new truths confused; rather, through a creative dialectic, new religious insights have been born. B) the celebration of Carnival in Brazil C) The Mayan practice of paying tribute to underworld spirits is replicated through building shrines to favorite Catholic saints. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single entry from a reference work in OR for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice). The Indian Face of God in Latin America. Together they directed the political-ecclesiastical enterpr… Through its combination of Yoruba and Hispanic cultural and religious traditions, Santería exemplifies Latin America's unique syncretic religious landscape, and the process of cultural fusion that allowed it … Religious syncretism exhibits blending of two or more religious belief systems into a new system, or the incorporation into a religious tradition of beliefs from unrelated traditions. Religious syncretism exhibits blending of two or more religious belief systems into a new system, or the incorporation into a religious tradition of beliefs from unrelated traditions. Syncretism / ˈ s ɪ ŋ k r ə t ɪ z əm / is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.Syncretism involves the merging or assimilation of several originally discrete traditions, especially in the theology and mythology of religion, thus asserting an underlying unity and allowing for an inclusive approach to other faiths. Ogum originated in Yoruba and Haitian religions. a creolized religion. One definition from www.britannica.com states: Religious syncretism, the fusion of diverse religious beliefs and practices. A Study of Mexican Religious Syncretism. cultural lag. For example, Christianity has highly dominated a significant fraction of American societies. You can get a more in depth look at this deity's background here, but for a quick overview, this deity was created by Miguel Sanchez, a Catholic priest, in 1648, but was embraced by the Christian clergy in Mexico as a way to convert the Indigenous population because of her Indian appearance. Through its combination of Yoruba and Hispanic cultural and religious traditions, Santería Keywords: syncretism, religion, Vodu, Orisha, Africa Introduction This article examines current debates surrounding the concept of syncretism in Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean and grapples with more than forty years of literature surrounding the concept.1 The comparative, historical, and ethnographic data of my own and Christianity was brought to Latin America by the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors of North, Central, and South America in the 16th cent. Instances of religious syncretism—as, for example, Gnosticism (a religious dualistic system that incorporated elements from the Oriental mystery religions), Judaism, Christianity, and Greek religious philosophical concepts—were particularly prevalent during the Hellenistic period (c. 300 bce –c. All religions (as well as philosophies, systems of ethics, cultural norms, etc.) Those similarities were downplayed in the effort to cast natives as inferior or sub-human. When a typical farmer and descendant of the Maya in the Yucatan Peninsula was asked why, if he was a Christian, did he make offerings to the chaac, the rain spirits, he answered, "Because I make milpa." Christianity and Colonial Expansion in the AmericasSpain was the first European country to colonize what today is North and South America, and the Spanish approach to the region came from several directions. The religious practices of many cultural groups combine elements of Christianity with the traditional religions of their ancestors. Information is also presented about the process of syncretism as evidenced in the growth and development of the cult of Maria Lionza in Venezuela , and about the remarkable case recently reported of religious syncretism among the Cora Indians The final goal of this paper is to uncover the syncretism that took place across Latin America with the introduction of a new faith as well as the ancient syncretism between the indigenous cultures. This essay discusses the involvement of religious groups in the myriad environmental struggles found in Latin America today. Nevertheless Catholicism remained the dominant presence on the spiritual landscape of Latin America, an enduring reflection of what historians have called the ‘spiritual conquest of Latin America’. New Orleans, LA: The Department of Middle American Research, The Tulane University of Louisiana, 1960. Answer: Though many European settlers and explorers who followed in Columbus's footsteps proselytized their Catholic beliefs, it wasn't until 1537 that Pope Paul III issued a charter affirming that the indigenous populations in Latin America were equal to Europeans, and thus allowed to become Christians. Answer: Syncretism, as defined by the American Heritage Dictionary, is “the reconciliation or fusion of differing systems of belief.” This is most evident in the areas of philosophy and religion, and usually results in a new teaching or belief system. In there specific kind of living, religion in Africa and America has been in one way or another integrated to come up with a solemn mode of religion. The religious landscape of the United States continues to change at a rapid clip. This is an example of independent innovation of cultural traits. Syncretism / ˈ s ɪ ŋ k r ə t ɪ z əm / is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.Syncretism involves the merging or assimilation of several originally discrete traditions, especially in the theology and mythology of religion, thus asserting an underlying unity and allowing for an inclusive approach to other faiths. Was it really important that the Indigenous population understand that the Christian gods they were told to worship were strictly Christian? The Jesuits in the second half of the 16th cent. Psychologists, (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. The Jesuits were expelled from Latin America in 1767. Indians made pilgrimages to this site for centuries and even well into the 18th century, Indians that made this pilgrimage were going to pay homage to Tonantzin, not Guadalupe. In other words, one thing had nothing to do with the other and praying for rain to the rain gods in order to ensure a good crop had no effect on his Christianity. Most American Native groups in both North and South America have the concept of a Great Creator and a number of them have beliefs that are in harmony with basic Christianity. For instance, when Roman Catholicism came to the Americas, particularly Latin America, they forced the Native Americans to convert to Roman Catholicism. In their gatherings it is common to see all sorts of sacrifices happening. Photo Essay Afro-Latin Religion. In Santeria/Christian syncretism in Cuba and Haiti she is known as Our Lady of Regla. In Bahia, she is known as Our Lady of Conception. The fact that superstitions have been accepted within the Christian religion is a telltale reminder of the unspoken compromise that was made between the Spanish Catholics and the Indigenous population five hundred years ago. Differentiating between beliefs and mere superstitions was a practical way for the Catholic clergy to justify this new form of Christianity. The syncretism between Christian and Umbanda religion gives us Our Lady of the Seafaring. Because of this we see so many Christian deities with a dual identity in Latin America today. Even the corresponding pagan religion that synchronized with Christianity can make a difference in the dual identity of this god, so in Voudou he is known as St. Jacques Majeur (St. James the Greater), or Santiago Matamoros (St. James the Moorslayer), but in Santeria he is syncretized with St. Peter. For instance, Christianity and Islam have somehow been combined to form a religion whose aspect constitutes elements of both Christianity and Islam. Many historical Native American religious movements have incorporated Christian European influence, like the Native American Church, the Ghost Dance, and the religion of Handsome Lake. 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