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20 Jan 2021

If you are dissatisfied with the response provided you can contact IPSO here, By Ill-equipped and out-gunned, they fought with outstanding discipline and bravery in the face of overwhelming odds. 32–62. Three days before the article was published, the devolved Scottish Government had announced that the referendum on Scottish independence would be held in September 2014. The troops started arriving late that evening; the tanks arrived three days later; the only howitzer in the Square was a German “trophy” weapon from the war. As a subscriber, you are shown 80% less display advertising when reading our articles. Mobilised at the start of the First World War, the 1st consisted of brigades drawn from the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, the Seaforths, Gordons and Camerons. The men from the 51st Highland Division, Black Watch and Argyll and Suther-land Highlanders, as well as the Seaforths had to engage the Germans as the rest of the British Expeditionary Force evacuated from Dunkirk in June 1940. On the one hand there is the faultless secular saint; on the other, a villain for all seasons. Jock Morrison. Some managed daring escapes. A typical Tweet about Churchill and George Square, with added “cannons” and firing. They would probably have held out for even longer at St. Valery had the French around them not hoisted the white flag. Worse still, the French army was in complete disarray, its fragile morale shattered by the German advance, many units simply abandoning the fight and fleeing along with civilian refugees. Seaforths from the 51st Highland Division in northern France in 1940 Together they formed a unit of about 20,000 men. The International Churchill Society (ICS), founded in 1968 shortly after Churchill's death, is the world’s preeminent member organisation dedicated to preserving the historic legacy of Sir Winston Churchill. The 51st (Highland) Division was an infantry division of the British Army that fought on the Western Front in France during the First World War from 1915 to 1918. But the game was up. The army was not “sent to Glasgow” by Churchill, nor even by the government, but was called in by the Sheriff of Lanarkshire as “military aid to the civil power”; he had previously checked that troops would be available. 291–93, and Peter Scott, In the Eye of the Storm (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1966), pp. The 51st (Highland) Division was the first whole division to be sent, late in April 1940. • The troops were sent to crush the strike. A century of myth making about the “Battle” means that the mythology is complex. These adverts enable local businesses to get in front of their target audience – the local community. were abandoned in order to allow the evacuation of 300,000 combatants from Dunkirk.” This is demonstrably untrue: the Dunkirk evacuation, over 200 km away, ended eight days before the surrender at St. Valéry, and the evacuation at Dunkirk was not dependent in any way on the struggle of the 51st. Yet another Churchill variant was to join the79th Armoured Division after the invasion of Europe. On social media, their rhetoric can cross the line into something like hate speech. This was the Crocodile, a flamethrower version of the tank that was to prove to be the best such AFV fielded by any combatant during the war. The story was picked up and repeated in the Daily Express the next day. The tamer version of this kind of social media post merely states, for example, “Churchill abandoned the fighting Scots of the 51st (Highland) Infantry Division June 1940.” This not only particularises the loss of Scottish troops by ignoring the shared fate of non-Scots, but also promotes the myth of “abandonment,” and implies some sort of deliberate act of malice by Churchill. The 51st was a firstline Territorial Army Division comprising nine Scottish infantry battalions and (usually ignored in the narrative of grievance) Royal Artillery, Royal Engineers, and other units, some of which were English. But this is only the beginning. We may then apply our discretion under the user terms to amend or delete comments. Much less known - and not at all celebrated - is the fact that on 4 June, 1940, the day after the evacuation from Dunkirk was completed, ten thousand Scots in Normandy launched an attack on the Germans. The International Churchill Society expands with two new chapters in the US. After Dunkirk, Churchill abandoned the Highlanders at St. Valery, This article was originally published in June, 2015. 4. https://www.academia. It has also been alleged that during World War II, Churchill was ready to surrender Scotland to Nazi forces to defend the south of England. In the end, one-third of the force did manage to escape through Le Havre. Other widely followed bloggers also posted it, and the lie went off round the world. Patrick Watt, “Manpower, Myth and Memory: Analysing Scotland’s Military Contribution to the Great War,” Journal of Scottish Historical Studies, 39.1, pp. In the atmosphere of increasingly heated debate, the “fact” that in Britain’s “finest hour” Field Marshal Ironside, Churchill, Westminster, and “the English” planned to abandon the Scots to the Nazis was seized upon as a splendid stick with which to beat those campaigning to preserve the Union. edu/35272980/The_birth_and_development_of_a_factoid_2013_17_ the_invention_of_history_in_the_ Scottish_independence_debate. St. Valery was forgotten about, an embarrassment. After St Valery, the 51st Highland Division was reconstituted and fought at El Alamein in Africa and defeated Rommel and his troops. A request to name these “historians” went unanswered, and senior figures in the charity have since defended the decision to keep this post on the site, in the face of objections, as they “have no remit to examine the interpretation of military history” as expressed on their social media feed by their staff. At 10 p.m. on 25 March a scan of the Daily Express article was posted on the Facebook page for “Yes to an Independent Scotland” (see image above). Perhaps his political objectives were even more important. The evacuation rescued 300,000 fighting men. Never forget the 51st Highland Division, and those brave soldiers who marched all night and fought all day until their eventual death or capture, dumped after Dunkirk by Churchill. His Division was outnumbered and outgunned in every aspect, particularly tanks. Led by General Victor … Three years later, I was passing long days beside my wife’s hospital bed revising that article, and, while searching for recent occurrences of the first myth, I came upon many social media posts about two others.4 These were, first, that in 1919 “Churchill sent English troops and tanks to George Square, Glasgow to crush a strike,” and, second, that in June 1940, after the end of the Dunkirk evacuation, Churchill “abandoned” or “sacrificed” the men of the 51st Highland Division at St. Valéry-en-Caux “because they were Scots and expendable.”, The first of these two is not as mythological as the “abandon Scotland” story, in that it is, to some extent, based on real events, but the “Battle of George Square” is perhaps the most mythologised event in twentieth-century Scottish history. It also enabled a morale-boosting, positive spin on what had been a military debacle. A particular strand of Scottish nationalism seems to believe that the cause of Scottish independence will be furthered by promoting division and distrust between the Scots and the English. “Truth” has become no more than “what I want to you to believe.”. 75–100. But after a victorious war, the British people weren't interested in defeats and surrenders. It's hard not to recall General Wolfe's assessment of the worth of Scottish soldiers: "No great mischief if they fall.". Other elements include claims that: • All of the troops sent were English. The division was raised in 1908, upon the creation of the Territorial Force, as the Highland Division and later 51st (Highland) Division from 1915. Second, I have been struck by the ways in which people are willing to invent new “facts” or fabricate circumstantial detail to support their own version. The commonly employed narrative of grievance about the 51st is not, however, a subtle consideration of Churchill’s realpolitik, but a series of claims that the 51st was treated worse because they were Scots and therefore expendable. By then, Le Havre had been cut off by Rommel and his Panzers. Not only was this not an “English invasion,” the majority of War Cabinet members present at the meeting at which it was agreed to provide troops to the Sheriff, if he needed them, were themselves Scots, and the discussion took place in a room where the majority of politicians and civil servants present also were Scots. In fact, the War Cabinet had been reminded on the previous day, 30 January, by the commander of the army in the UK, that the government had no legal powers to send troops onto the streets of a British city, unless martial law was declared which in this case, it was not.5. Those ads you do see are predominantly from local businesses promoting local services. The offensive by the 51st Highland Division on the Somme was only partially successful. On 12 June 1940, more than a week after the last British troops had been evacuated from Dunkirk, the 51st (Highland) Division was forced to surrender to General Erwin Rommel's 7th Panzer Division at St Valery-en-Caux. It was said to have been the darkest day in the history of that famous regiment. The 51st Highland Division landed in Le Havre in January 1940 as part of the British Expeditionary Force [B.E.F.] The evacuation of ten thousand men from there, a major international port, would have been a relatively simple matter. The problem was, that the article named me and my then about-to-be-published book on the anti-invasion defences of Scotland during the Second World War as the source of this “fact.”3 The book and my research suggest no such thing: the myth was created by assigning words to people who did not say them, quoting things from one context as though they were from another, and leaving out much that undermined the story. WINSTON Churchill was undoubtedly a great war leader ("Myth of reckless egoist who was last of the imperialists", The Herald, January 21, and Letters, January 22 & 23). He was an enthusiastic advocate of the Gallipoli Campaign in 1915. This perhaps indicates how much traction this mythologised version of the past is gaining: a Scottish National Party Member of the Scottish Parliament posted in the following month: “Churchill famously abandoned the Highlanders at St Valéry.”. Copyright © 2021 International Churchill Society. The International Churchill Society expands with two new chapters in the US. Others descend to cruder levels: an office-bearer in an organisation affiliated to the Scottish National Party has recently promoted a newly popular and peculiarly unpleasant variant of the mythology, that Scots and Irish troops were selectively abandoned on the beach at Dunkirk, in favour of Englishmen. The fourth, claiming that Scotland suffered disproportionately high casualties in the First World War—between 25% and 28% of enlisted men—has been discredited by Patrick Watt.1, On Sunday, 24 March 2013, in the Mail on Sunday a myth sprang fully formed from the imagination of a journalist, that in 1940 Scotland was to be sacrificed to the Nazis in the event of a German invasion, in order to protect England. An almost completely mythical version of the event, English troops, tanks in the square and all, continues to appear in Scottish school textbooks. The Fighting 51st deserves better. All Rights Reserved. The 51st was a firstline Territorial Army Division comprising nine Scottish infantry battalions and (usually ignored in the narrative of grievance) Royal Artillery, Royal Engineers, and other units, some of which were English. Third, the elaborate mythology is not subject to even the most basic critical analysis. In 2014 I wrote an article describing the creation and political use of the “abandon Scotland” myth. Churchill and Scottish Mythologies of Grievance. The earliest known date for this claim is 1957, thirty-eight years after the strike. Churchill, of course, had form as a would-be military strategist. In Operation Plunder the British 2nd Army (The 51st Highland Division and the 15th Scottish Division) and the US Ninth Army (30th and 79th Division) crossed the River Rhine in an amphibious assault. On June, 12, 1940, days after the successful mass evacuations at Dunkirk, thousands of British troops remained on continental Europe under French command, most of them from the 51st Highland Division. Its leader, General Fortune, knew that. Churchill made a calculated decision to keep the 51st in the line with the French, as part of his efforts to keep them in the fight. Much is being made of the 75th anniversary of the Dunkirk 'Miracle'. The division was raised in 1908, upon the creation of the Territorial Force, as the Highland Division and later 51st (Highland) Division from 1915. Unfortunately, this problematic post was put up on the Facebook page of a Scottish veterans’ charity in May 2019. The planned evacuation in more than 200 vessels that had been gathered offshore was made impossible by inadequate communication, fog, and German artillery fire. No one asks: could this possibly be true? The 51st Highland Division had originally been the 1st Highland Territorial Division when it was raised at the general creation of the Territorial Force in 1908. This is the context in which the myths I have been describing have developed. Objections to the post on Facebook were answered, “it is a matter of record that a number of historians believe 51st Div. Churchill thought it needed ‘strengthening’ with some regular units, so the 1st Battalion took the place of the 6th, which went to the 4th Division. It is here that the most blatant rewriting of reality, past and present, is being carried out. Either way, for military or political reasons, Churchill abandoned the Highlanders. Historical grievances are being resurrected, exaggerated, or just invented. It appears to have little connection to the real man in the context of the times he lived through. 8. It's too late to award a St. Valery medal to the survivors. I started challenging the mythology as soon as I discovered it, but it continues to appear frequently, even now. Readers’ comments: You are personally liable for the content of any comments you upload to this website, so please act responsibly. 1. It is important that we continue to promote these adverts as our local businesses need as much support as possible during these challenging times. This post received almost 1000 “shares” in a short period. ... Winston Churchill on 17 June 1940. In the period of the “Phoney War” in the west, between September 1939 and May 1940, the British Expeditionary Force was based in northern France, along the frontier with neutral Belgium. The 51 st (Highland) Division under Major-General Victor Fortune formed part of the British Expeditionary Force's GHQ reserve. L. F. Ellis, The War in France and Flanders 1939–1940 (London: HM Stationery Office, 1954), p. 366. Was that a useless “sacrifice”? He was held as a prisoner of war until he escaped the Nazis in 1945. With the further 1,000 or so taken on the Somme and in the Saar, a total of over 11,000 soldiers of the Division were marched into 5 long years of captivity. In June 1940, he hoped the presence of the Highland Division would stiffen the military resistance of the French. The British Expeditionary Force, they argued, was a half-hearted effort and, at the first opportunity, it had packed up and run off home. Here, they would be directly facing the German Army and could gain experience in front-line conditions, for example, undertaking offensive patrolling. The only sensible military option for the Highland Division was evacuation back to Britain. One of the posts that set the lie off around the world. A desperate, last-minute plan to evacuate the Highlanders from St. Valery, a small fishing port, bound on either side by high cliffs, proved to be forlorn. Oddly, at both extremes, these positions can often be characterised as “nationalistic.” In much of this rhetoric, “Churchill” often seems merely to be a personification of Britain, England, or the Empire for those whose nationalism either idolises or denigrates what they stand or stood for. But logic and sense are not the currency of promoters of “alternative facts.”, The polarisation of politics and society is perhaps seen at its most extreme on social media. The promotion of this fake history is an interesting study. Thus, if there were troops and tanks in Glasgow, logically it follows that they must have been “sent… to disperse protestors in George Square,” with “orders to shoot to kill,” resulting in “hundreds” dead. A Scottish veterans’ charity posts a version of the “abandoned” myth that places personal blame on Churchill and airbrushes non-Scots from history. In fact, most of the force was Scots. 5. As General de Gaulle said: …the comradeship in arms experienced on the battlefield of Abbeville in May and June 1940 between the French armoured division which I had the honour to command and the valiant 51st Highland Division under General Fortune played its part in the decision which I took to continue fighting on the side of the Allies unto the end, no matter what the course of events. We use cookies to ensure that we are able to give you the best experience on our website. Read More . There have been some fine memoirs from survivors, a book or two, a poignant song from the Battlefield Band. After inspecting the 51st Highland Division on 7 August, Churchill returned to the embassy and was told after dinner by an aide that his plans decided only the day before had been overtaken by events. Lance Coporal Colin Chisholm was captured at St Valery when attached to the 51st Highland Brigade. 20,000 men of the 51st (Highland) Division arrived in France in January 1940 as part of the 500,000-strong British Expeditionary Force sent to help defend the country against a possible German invasion. Emanuel Shinwell, Conflict Without Malice (London: Odhams, 1955); I’ve Lived Through It All (London: Gollancz, 1973); Lead with the Left (London: Cassel, 1981); Shinwell Talking (London: Quiller Press, 1984). More than 10,000 members of the Division were driven into … Men of the Durham Light Infantry, 49th (West Riding) Division ‘advance’ past a knocked-out German Panther tank during Operation ‘Epsom’, 27 June 1944. Churchill was accused in 1919 of ordering tanks into the “Battle of George Square” and in 1940 of leaving the 51st Highland Division at St. Valery because it was Scottish. Winston Churchill greets an officer of 51st Highland Division during his visit to Tripoli to thank the 8th Army for its success in the North African campaign, 4 February 1943. The third of the myths is more complex. But … More than 10,000 members of the Division were driven into five years of captivity in prison camps. The division's insignia was a stylised 'HD' inside a red circle. The Luftwaffe had total command of the skies. If you continue to use this website then you must agree to the terms set out in our Privacy Policy. It could be argued that the Highland Division was just unlucky. Those who surrendered at St. Valery endured forced marches, with little sustenance, across France and Belgium, then transport in coal barges and cattle wagons to POW camps in Eastern Germany and Poland. I have concentrated on fake history on social media, but much of the same mythologised past appears in newspaper articles, TV documentaries, and even popular and academic histories and school history texts. Ibid., pp. 3. There is no space here to describe their retreat across France. The real, complex, and historically important Churchill is increasingly disappearing behind crudely mythologised versions erected by those who wish to defend a political position or a series of values, and those who wish to attack them. A comment under an article in the nationalist newspaper the National during the controversies about Churchill’s reputation, early in 2019. The Lothians and Border Yeomanry supported the 51st Highland Division after they were cut off by the Germans and left behind following the evacuation of Dunkirk. Gott had been killed. At that time, I was not active on social media, and it was some time before I became aware that my book had been misrepresented. Dr. Gordon J. Barclay is an archaeologist and historian. But St. Valery remains a minor footnote in Scottish history. The narrative veers back and forth between “sacrifice” and “abandonment”; the latter is more problematic because it links directly to the frequently made but false assertion that no attempt was made to evacuate the men from St. Valéry. The observant reader will have noticed the flaw: how could sailors on, at the latest, 4 June 1940 threaten to mutiny about an event that would not happen until 11 June? Populist nationalist politics, at both national and devolved levels in the UK and elsewhere in the world, thrive in an atmosphere in which trust has been eroded in traditional sources of information and in which expertise and specialist knowledge are denigrated. #thinkchurchill bit.ly/3nP8JDW … See MoreSee Less, Share on FacebookShare on TwitterShare on Linked InShare by Email. The ancillary force sent with the 51st also contained three English infantry battalions.7. 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