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20 Jan 2021

The soldiers shot down our oxen, cows, hogs and fowls, at our own doors, taking part away and leaving the rest to rot in the streets. [40][41] [65], Local citizens were outraged by the actions of the Danites and other Mormon bands. In Livingston County, a group of armed men forced Asahel Lathrop from his home, where they held his ill wife and children prisoner. The Militia broke ranks and fled across the river. [51][53] Ignoring this counsel, a Mormon judge in Caldwell County called out the Caldwell militia, led by Colonel George M. Hinkle. [69] Instead of staying in the strip, Bogart passed into southern Caldwell County and began to disarm Mormons. [120], Whatever the case, the following year Rockwell was arrested, tried, and acquitted of the attempted murder,[118] although most of Boggs' contemporaries remained convinced of his guilt. One contemporary critic of the Mormons wrote: Mormonism is a monstrous evil; and the only place where it ever did or ever could shine, this side of the world of despair, is by the side of the Missouri mob. "[46] After more than a week, a company of armed Mormons assisted Lathrop in rescuing his wife and two of his children (one had died while prisoner). At 8:00 am, Joseph sent word to Far West to surrender.[94]. Robinson, Ebenezer. [63] None of these claims, however, purport to be eyewitness accounts. Austin A. [25][26], At the same time Mormons, including Sampson Avard, began to organize a secret society known as the Danites, whose purposes included obeying the church presidency "right or wrong" and expelling the dissenters from Caldwell County. The conflict, popularly known among Missourians as the Mormon War, began when anti-Mormon vigilantes attempted to prevent the Saints from settling in Carroll County. Unfortunately, the shop had large gaps between the logs which the Missourians shot into and, as one Mormon later recalled, it became more "slaughter-house rather than a shelter. Tensions built up between the rapidly-growing Mormon community and the earlier settlers for a number of reasons: These tensions led to harassment and mob violence against the Mormon settlers. After several non-Mormons made statements to the authorities that Johnson had acted as a moderating influence on the Danites, he was allowed to escape rather than stand trial. [66] On October 24, they swore out affidavits concerning the burning and looting in Daviess County. Once they were established in a county of their own, a period of relative peace ensued. [57], Even Missourians who had been friendly to the Mormons were not spared. They also reported the existence of the Danite group among the Mormons and repeated a popular rumor that a group of Danites was planning to attack and burn Richmond and Liberty. [59] According to one witness, "We could stand in our door and see houses burning every night for over two weeks... the Mormons completely gutted Daviess County. ", Siege of Far West and capture of church leaders. "[82][83][84] On August 19, 1838, Mormon settler Smith Humphrey reports that 100 armed men led by Colonel William Claude Jones took him prisoner for two hours and threatened him and the rest of the Mormon community.[43]. During the conflict, 22 people were killed (three Mormons and one non-Mormon at Battle of Crooked Creek,[1] one Mormon prisoner fatally injured while in custody,[2] and 17 Mormons at Haun’s Mill[3]), and an unknown number of non-combatants died due to exposure and hardship as a result of being expelled from their homes in Missouri. "[78] The mob gave no quarter. Nathan Tanner reported that his militia company rescued another woman and three small children who were hiding in the bushes as their home burned. "[48][49], On October 9, A C Caldwell returned to De Witt to report that the Governor's response was that the "quarrel was between the Mormons and the mob" and that they should fight it out.[48]. [70], When the Mormons arrived on the scene, the State Militia unit was camped along Crooked River in the Bunkham's Strip just south of Caldwell County. He stated that General Parks reported to him that "a portion of the men from Carroll County, with one piece of artillery, are on their march for Daviess County, where it is thought the same lawless game is to be played over, and the Mormons to be driven from that county and probably from Caldwell County." Dunn, acting under the orders of Doniphan, continued on to Adam-ondi-Ahman. Fearing attack, many citizens of Ray County moved their wives and children across the Missouri River for safety. When faced with the Mormon refugees from Missouri, the people of Quincy, Illinois, were outraged by the treatment the Mormons had experienced. [118], Joseph Smith vehemently denied Bennett's account, speculating that Boggs—no longer governor, but campaigning for state senate—was attacked by an election opponent. [26][28][29], On July 4, Sidney Rigdon gave an oration, which was characterized by Mormon historian Brigham Henry Roberts as a "'Declaration of Independence' from all mobs and persecutions. Lathrop's wife and remaining children died shortly after their rescue. Mormon dissenters from Daviess County who had fled to Livingston County reportedly told Livingston County militia under Colonel Thomas Jennings that Mormons were gathering at Haun's Mill to raid into Livingston County. Despite an attempt by the Mormons to parley, the mob attacked. I will not obey your order. [Missouri War] Judge King orders General Atchison to raise four hundred troops and disperse the Mormons and non-Mormon vigilantes. Ironically, as a result of his kindness, he was the only Mormon who was positively identified to have participated in the home burnings. [3][84] When survivors of the massacre reached Far West, the reports of the savagery of the attack played a significant part in the decision of the Mormons to surrender. [105], Daviess County residents were outraged by the escape of Smith and the other leaders. [21] Mormons felt that the compromise only excluded major settlements in Clay County and Ray County, not Daviess County and Carroll County. [4] An unknown number of non-combatants died due to exposure and hardship as a result of being expelled from their homes in Missouri.[5]. A number of Missourians left the scene to obtain guns and ammunition and swore that they would "kill all the Saints they could find, or drive them out of Daviess County, sparing neither men, women or children". However, Reynolds was unable to capture Rockwell. which rallied the Mormons and allowed them to drive off their opponents.[36]. We’ve got a lot to get through, so let’s jump right in. To do so, would be to act with extreme cruelty. [83] The mob gave no quarter. Most of these refugees settled in or near what would become the city of Nauvoo, Illinois. Lucas' terms were severe. In Livingston County, a group of armed men forced Asahel Lathrop from his home, where they held his ill wife and children prisoner. [51][52] Although he was sympathetic to the Mormons' plight, Doniphan reminded the Latter Day Saints that the Caldwell County militia could not legally enter Daviess County, and he advised Mormons traveling there to go in small parties and unarmed. [56], When a Mormon band plundered and burned the Taylor home, one young Mormon, Benjamin F Johnson, argued his fellow vigilantes into leaving a horse for a pregnant Mrs Taylor and her children to ride to safety. Ironically, as a result of his kindness, he was the only Mormon who was positively identified to have participated in the home burnings. Colonel Hinkle and Mormons of the Caldwell County militia were joined by elements of the Danite organization. The oft-repeated LDS claim that there was a time when it was legal for folks to kill a Mormon in Missouri finds its roots in the 1838 Mormon War in Missouri. The non-Mormon militiaman who died was Moses Rowland, who was killed at Crooked River on 25 October 1838. And Subsequent Expulsion. Major General Samuel D. Lucas marched the state militia to Far West and laid siege to the Mormon headquarters. In addition, Mormon vigilantes, including many Danites, raided two towns believed to be centers of anti-Mormon activity, burning homes and stealing goods.22 Though the existence of the Danites was short-lived, it resulted in a longstanding and much-embellished myth about a secret society of Mormon vigilantes. [39], In the spring of 1838, Henry Root, a non-Mormon who was a major land-owner in Carroll County, visited Far West and sold his plots in the mostly vacant town of De Witt to church leaders. [1], Forcefully deprived of their homes and property, the Latter Day Saints temporarily settled in the area around Jackson County, especially in Clay County. Smith's followers, commonly known as Mormons, began to settle in Jackson County in 1831 to "build up" the city of Zion. [43] The citizens of De Witt sent non-Mormon Henry Root to appeal to Judge King and General Parks for assistance. The 1838 Mormon War, also known as the Missouri Mormon War, ... Sampson Avard (October 23, 1800 – April 15, 1869) was one of the founders and leaders of the Mormon vigilantes known as the Danites, which existed in Missouri during the Missouri Mormon War in 1838. Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, "Mormonism. The church relocated from Kirtland to Far West, which became its new headquarters. News of the battle quickly spread and contributed to an all-out panic in northwestern Missouri. . [13][42], Sentiment among the anti-Mormon segment of Carroll County's population hardened, and some began to take up arms. "[86][88], Joseph Smith Jr. and the other arrested leaders were held overnight under guard in General Lucas' camp, where they were left exposed to the elements. On May 6, 1842, Boggs was shot in the head at his home three blocks from Temple Lot. [48], The besieged town resorted to butchering whatever loose livestock wandered into town in order to avoid starvation while waiting for the militia or the Governor to come to their aid. Citizens in Saline, Howard, Jackson, Chariton, Ray, and other nearby counties organized vigilance committees sympathetic to the Carroll County expulsion party. One historian notes that Governor Boggs was running for election against several violent men, all capable of the deed, and that there was no particular reason to suspect Rockwell of the crime. In addition, none of the participants in the raid cited the order as justification for their actions.[81]. The Missourians and their families, outnumbered by the Mormons, made their way to neighboring counties. My brigade shall march for Liberty to-morrow morning, at 8 o'clock, and if you execute those men, I will hold you responsible before an earthly tribunal, so help me God! [57], When a Mormon band plundered and burned the Taylor home, one young Mormon, Benjamin F Johnson, argued his fellow vigilantes into leaving a horse for a pregnant Mrs Taylor and her children to ride to safety. [89], Joseph Smith Jr attempted to negotiate with Lucas, but it became clear that Lucas considered his conditions to be non-negotiable. This conflict is also sometimes referred to as the Missouri Mormon War to differentiate it from the Utah Mormon War (also known as the "Utah War") and the lesser known Illinois Mormon War. After most of the defenders in the blacksmith shop had been killed or mortally wounded, some of the Missourians entered to finish the work. Wikipedia definition [as of Jan 25, 2011]: The Danites were a fraternal organization founded by Latter Day Saint members in June 1838, in the town of Far West in Caldwell County, Missouri. David W. Patten, also known as Captain Fearnot, attacked Gallatin. Shortly after organizing the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints in 1830, Joseph Smith Jr. revealed that the Second Coming of Christ was near, that the City of Zion would be near the town of Independence in Jackson County, Missouri, and that his followers were destined to inherit the land held by the current settlers. Lathrop's wife and remaining children died shortly after their rescue. Compton, Todd M.; Leland Homer Gentry (2012-01-26). Agnes Smith, a sister-in-law of Joseph, was chased from her home with two small children when her home was burned. "[30] The text of this speech was endorsed by Joseph Smith, who appeared at the event and participated in the raising of a liberty pole. La Guerra mormona es el nombre dado al conflicto de 1838 el cual ocurrió entre los Santos de los Últimos Días y sus vecinos de la región noroeste del estado norteamericano de Misuri.También se denomina a este conflicto como Guerra mormona de Misuri para diferenciarlo de la Guerra mormona de Utah (también conocida como Guerra de Utah) y la menos conocida Guerra mormona de Illinois. John Whitmer recounts that Smith bribed the guards. On October 29, this large vigilante band of some 250 men assembled and entered eastern Caldwell County. 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