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20 Jan 2021

Later, they expanded to the north of the Mediterranean Sea to include Western, Central, and Southeastern Europe. A number of countries did not fit comfortably into this neat definition of partition, including Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, and Ireland, which chose to be neutral. [44] What followed dealt an irrevocable blow to the already weakened Byzantine Empire with the Crusader army's sack of Constantinople in April 1204, capital of the Greek Christian-controlled Byzantine Empire, described as one of the most profitable and disgraceful sacks of a city in history. [38][39] The ancient Barbarian tribes, often composed of well-trained Roman soldiers paid by Rome to guard the extensive borders, had become militarily sophisticated 'romanized barbarians', and mercilessly slaughtered the Romans conquering their Western territories while looting their possessions. The Holy Roman Empire would dissolve on 6 August 1806, after the French Revolution and the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by Napoleon. The Emperor sent a plea to the Pope in Rome to send military aid to restore the lost territories to Christian rule. Christianity is still the dominant religion in the Western world, where about 70% of the population is Christian. During these struggles hundreds of senators were killed, and the Roman Senate had been refilled with loyalists[vague] of the First Triumvirate and later those of the Second Triumvirate. Several dates are commonly proposed to mark the transition from Republic to Empire, including the date of Julius Caesar's appointment as perpetual. Still, Russia accepted Eastern Christianity from the Byzantine Empire (by the Patriarch of Constantinople: Photios I) linking Russia very close to the Eastern Roman Empire world. … A few decades ago, the Greeks were the first to construct the urban center in the entire history of European. While the second option is the most appropriate and useful for an analysis focused on the international political consequences of civilizations, including relations between Latin America, on the one hand, and North America and Europe, on the other, he also mentions that the underlying conflict of Latin America belonging to the West must eventually be addressed in order to develop a cohesive Latin American identity. One answer is Hungary, the leader of which, Viktor Orban, recently warned that globalists in Western Europe are currently in the process of wiping out a European society based on nation states and Christian culture and that central European countries are standing up to the organized destruction of civilized life. Later on, in 16th century Russia created its own religious centre in Moscow. 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Karin Friedrich et al., The Other Prussia: Royal Prussia, Poland and Liberty, 1569–1772, Cambridge University Press, 2000, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFDaus1983 (, M. Weisner-Hanks, Early Modern Europe 1450–1789 (Cambridge, 2006). [citation needed], Greek culture is said to have influenced Roman civilization in all aspects of society, from architecture to philosophy, art and war. Christianity has been historically intertwined with Western civilization. This usage occurs despite the fact that many countries that may be culturally "Western" are developing countries – in fact, a significant percentage of the Americas are developing countries. Sinai. It has had a corporatist and authoritarian culture that Europe had to a much lesser extent. It is a generally accepted[citation needed] western view to recognize the existence of at least three "major worlds" (or "cultures", or "civilizations"), broadly in contrast with the Western: the Eastern world, the Arab and the African worlds, with no clearly specified boundaries. "[37] There followed the sack of AD 455 lasting 14 days, this time conducted by the Vandals, retaining Rome's eternal spirit through the Holy See of Rome (the Latin Church) for centuries to come. It took shape in medieval Europe, with its Christian religion, feudal society, dispersed power-structures and growing economic dynamism. There are numerous definitions of what constitutes the Western world that are closely related. According to Pew Research Center, in 2011, they found that 86% of the people of the Americas, 73.5% from Oceania, and 76.2% of Europeans identify themselves as Christians. "Because they have laws and rules invented by reason. European Union (in blue) and European Free Trade Association (in green). The geopolitical divisions in Europe that created a concept of East and West originated in the Roman Empire. Peninsula of Mt. [32], The term has come to apply to countries whose history is strongly marked by European immigration or settlement, such as the Americas, and Oceania, and is not restricted to Europe. One specific example was the requirement that post-colonial societies were made to form nation-states (in the Western tradition), which often created arbitrary boundaries and borders that did not necessarily represent a whole nation, people, or culture (as in much of Africa), and are often the cause of international conflicts and friction even to this day. Western civilization, western culture or the West is made up of European culturally derived societies (most notably in the Classical Roman heritage, Western Christianity ( Catholicism and Protestantism ), Democracy and Liberalism ). Others have accused universities of "double standards" for taking money from China and Muslim countries for area studies centres, while declining a centre devoted to Western civilization. Western Africa, region of the western African continent comprising the countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. The situation was a serious threat to the future of the Eastern Orthodox Byzantine Empire. The West began thinking in terms of Western Latins (those living in the old Western Empire) and Eastern Greeks (those inside the Roman remnant to the east). Are Russia and America bound by the same ties that unite us with … The Papal Inquisition was established in AD 1229 on a permanent basis, run largely by clergymen in Rome,[47] and abolished six centuries later. The nuclear family based on monogamous marriage was an important factor in the emergence of Western individualism, and, therefore, in the rise and spread of Western civilization. [80], During the Cold War, a new definition emerged. Western civilization survives! But these journeys had little permanent effect on east–west trade because of a series of political developments in Asia in the last decades of the 14th century, which put an end to further European exploration of Asia: namely the new Ming rulers were found to be unreceptive of religious proselytism by European missionaries and merchants. Others say: "No, we have our own unique culture"; and a vast bibliographical material produced by Latin Americans and North Americans exposes in detail their cultural differences. Even after demands for self-determination from subject peoples within Western empires were met with decolonization, these institutions persisted. [97] A 2011 Pew Research Center survey found that 76.2% of Europeans, 73.3% in Oceania, and about 86.0% in the Americas (90% in Latin America and 77.4% in North America) described themselves as Christians. The United States, following the Spanish–American War in 1898, quickly emerged as the new imperial power in East Asia and in the Pacific Ocean area. The Philippines is in itself a Spanish creation. Rome. In contemporary usage, the Western World refers to Europe and other areas whose population originated from Europe. Additionally, Latin American and Orthodox worlds are sometimes separately considered "akin" to the West. [73], Between the 1870s and 1914 (the so-called Beautiful Era, socioeconomically optimistic and innovative decades of the Second Industrial Revolution), the established colonial powers in Asia (United Kingdom, France, Netherlands) added to their empires also vast expanses of territory in the Indian Subcontinent and South East Asia. [citation needed]. In its 10-centuries expansion, Roman civilization shifted from a small monarchy (753 – 509 BC), to a republic (509 – 27 BC), to an autocratic empire (27 BC – AD 476). Use of the term West as a specific cultural and geopolitical term developed over the course of the Age of Exploration as Europe spread its culture to other parts of the world. The Bible itself is responsible for much of the language, literature, and fine arts we enjoy today as its artists and composers were heavily influenced by its writings. A 'Modern West' emerged from the Late Middle Ages (after the Renaissance and fall of Constantinople) as a new civilization greatly influenced by the interpretation of Greek thought preserved in the Byzantine Empire, and transmitted from there by Latin translations and emigration of Greek scholars through Renaissance humanism. The difference for society between the Western norm and the harem was well understood by Kemal Ataturk, the first president of the Turkish Republic, who in speeches in … The dark green areas show the countries where this alphabet is the sole official (or de facto official) national script. Jerusalem and Vicinity. [29] Numerous times, this expansion was accompanied by Catholic missionaries, who attempted to proselytize Christianity. It is largely accepted that the origin of Western civilization is ancient Greece and ancient Rome. The Second World was the Eastern bloc in the Soviet sphere of influence, including the Soviet Union (15 republics including the then-occupied and presently independent Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) and Warsaw Pact countries like Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, East Germany (now united with Germany), and Czechoslovakia (now split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia). Settlers to these colonies included Anglicans, Dutch Calvinists, English Puritans and other nonconformists, English Catholics, Scottish Presbyterians, French Huguenots, German and Swedish Lutherans, as well as Quakers, Mennonites, Amish, and Moravians. [citation needed], The Latin Rite Catholic Church of western and central Europe split with the eastern Greek-speaking Patriarchates in the Christian East–West Schism, also known as the "Great Schism", during the Gregorian Reforms (calling for a more central status of the Roman Catholic Church Institution), three months after Pope Leo IX's death in April 1054. [citation needed], Ancient Rome (753 BC – AD 476) was a civilization that grew from a city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula about the 8th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. The influence of Western Civilization is global; defining American culture and North American culture among others. 7: The Scientific Revolution of the 17 Cent", Industrial Revolution and the Standard of Living: The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics, "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia", "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency", "Review of Global Reach: the Power of the Multinational Corporations, by Richard J. Barnet and Ronald E. Muller", "Securing the World's Commercial Sea Lanes | The American Spectator | Politics Is Too Important To Be Taken Seriously", "Table: Religious Composition by Country, in Percentages", "The new cold war: are we going back to the bad old days? Geopolitical Occident of Europe, according to the Intermediate Region theory of Dimitri Kitsikis. The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various regions, nations and states, depending on the context, most often consisting of the majority of Europe,[a] Northern America and Australasia. However, he does mention that the modus operandi of the Catholic Church was to incorporate native elements of pagan European cultures into the general dogma of Catholicism, and the Native American elements could be perceived in the same way. [118], Countries that identify themselves with an originally European shared culture, This article is about the Western world in the context of the, "Western power" redirects here. On the other hand, the Orient is derived from the Latin word “oriens,” rise or east. Although not part of Western colonization process proper, following the Middle Ages Western culture in fact entered other global-spanning cultures during the colonial 15th–20th centuries. [40], The Roman Empire is where the idea of "the West" began to emerge. Others have fiercely criticized these views arguing they confuse the Eastern Roman Empire with Russia, especially considering the fact that the country that had the most historical roots in Byzantium (Greece) expelled communists and was allied with the West during the Cold War. It is largely accepted that the origin of Western civilization is ancient Greece and ancient Rome. Division of the Roman Empire after 395 into western and eastern part. [citation needed], Most of colonized nations received independence by 1960. [68] Industrialisation, however, dramatically increased European demand for Asian raw materials; and the severe Long Depression of the 1870s provoked a scramble for new markets for European industrial products and financial services in Africa, the Americas, Eastern Europe, and especially in Asia (Western powers exploited their advantages in China for example by the Opium Wars). 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