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The function that it was supposed to have in ancient Rome is still uncertain. This occasioned the famous Pasquinade Quod non fecerunt Barberi, fecerunt Barberini (“What the barbarians did not do, the Barberini did”). Excavations carried out in the square (Piazza della Rotunda) in front of the Pantheon have revealed that the ancient street level was around two meters below the present level. The porch of the Pantheon and the rotunda are connected by an intermediate or transitional block, which basically consists of two wedges that adapt the rectilinear geometry of the porch to the circular geometry of the rotunda. The frieze has allegorical representations of Generosity, by Eugenio Maccagnani, and Munificence, by Arnaldo Zocchi. Mark and Hutchison estimated that, if normal weight concrete had been used throughout, the stresses in the arch would have been some 80% greater. [6], The name "Pantheon" is from the Ancient Greek "Pantheion" (Πάνθειον) meaning "of, relating to, or common to all the gods": (pan- / "παν-" meaning "all" + theion / "θεῖον"= meaning "of or sacred to a god"). From the exit turn left to the Spanish Steps and walk along Via dei Condotti (the street that starts from the Barcaccia fountain at the bottom of the Spanish Steps). Upon passing through the doors at the back of the portico one enters the single inner room or cella of the temple, a circular hall covered by a vast hemispherical dome. Manfredo Manfredi won the competition, and started work in 1885. 3 The exact age of the pantheon remains unknown. It burned in the great fire of 80 AD, was rebuilt by Emperor Domitian, but was struck by lightning and burned again in 110 AD. Because of this, the interior floor is equipped with drains and has been built with an incline of about 30 centimetres (12 in) to promote water runoff.[62][63]. [3] The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same, 43 metres (142 ft).[4]. This structure gives access to the door to the main building. The institution still exists, and is now called the Academia Ponteficia di Belle Arti (The Pontifical Academy of Fine Arts), based in the palace of the Cancelleria. [30][31] This now-barely legible inscription reads: In 609, the Byzantine emperor Phocas gave the building to Pope Boniface IV, who converted it into a Christian church and consecrated it to St. Mary and the Martyrs on 13 May 609: "Another Pope, Boniface, asked the same [Emperor Phocas, in Constantinople] to order that in the old temple called the Pantheon, after the pagan filth was removed, a church should be made, to the holy virgin Mary and all the martyrs, so that the commemoration of the saints would take place henceforth where not gods but demons were formerly worshipped. Each zone of the interior, from floor to ceiling, is subdivided according to a different scheme. Three of them have a semicircular floor-plan (the one on the main axis directly opposite the doorway and those on either side of the building on the axis at right angles to this) and the other four (on the 2 diagonal axes) have a rectangular floor-plan. next to it towards the north, this second square would, 30.40 metres (external) 21.70 metres (internal), Octagonal Hall – Baths of Diocletian – Rome, It was merely restored by Hadrian (emperor from 117 to 138 AD), as stated in the. In 1747, the broad frieze below the dome with its false windows was "restored," but bore little resemblance to the original. Holes marking the location of clamps that held the sculpture suggest that its design was likely an eagle within a wreath; ribbons extended from the wreath into the corners of the pediment.[42]. However, Paul the Deacon records the spoliation of the building by the Emperor Constans II, who visited Rome in July 663: Remaining at Rome twelve days he pulled down everything that in ancient times had been made of metal for the ornament of the city, to such an extent that he even stripped off the roof of the church [of the blessed Mary], which at one time was called the Pantheon, and had been founded in honour of all the gods and was now by the consent of the former rulers the place of all the martyrs; and he took away from there the bronze tiles and sent them with all the other ornaments to Constantinople. Each was 11.9 metres tall, 1.5 metres in diameter, and 60 tonnes in weight. [27] How the building was actually used is not known. The formwork would have been easier to move, to position precisely and to remove. The wall of the rotunda is 6 meters thick and is punctuated by seven deep niches or alcoves, the ceilings of which are supported by two Corinthian columns. On the altar is a statue of St Joseph and the Holy Child by Vincenzo de' Rossi. Ziolkowski argues that Lanciani's initial assessment is still supported by all of the finds to date, including theirs; furthermore he expresses skepticism because the building they describe, "a single building composed of a huge pronaos and a circular cella of the same diameter, linked by a relatively narrow and very short passage (much thinner than the current intermediate block), has no known parallels in classical architecture and would go against everything we know of Roman design principles in general and of Augustan architecture in particular. Pantheon is a Greek word meaning “honor all Gods” so the building had special significance during the Roman Empire. No obvious set plan Free-standing columns at the front then semi-engaged columns in the porch Unique with the dome and an oculus. [49] These were thought to be a 15th century replacement for the original, mainly because they were deemed by contemporary architects to be too small for the door frames. The name Pantheon means “Temple dedicated to all gods ”. They would have corresponded to the second pediment visible on the front of the intermediate block. A temple dedicated to all gods. The present arrangement is from 1811, designed by Antonio Muñoz. The above-mentioned relationship between the circle and the square, which underlies the basic geometry of the entire building, is also mirrored by the floor decorations that still maintain the original design (although much of the marble has either been replaced or relaid). Subsequent chapters present the Pantheon as it existed during the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries, and finally the Modern Age. Originally, the Pantheon was a Roman temple dedicated to worshipping the planetary gods (the Sun, the Moon, Venus, Saturn, Jupiter, Mercury and Mars) in Roman times. Lexington books, Toronto, 2007, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCinti2007 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFWilson-Jones2000 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFRoss2000 (, Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism, M[arcus] Aurelius Antoninus Pius Felix Aug[ustus], S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine, National Institute of Honour Guards to the Royal Tombs, List of the oldest buildings in the world, "Nuova guida metodica di Roma e suoi contorni – Parte Terza ("New methodic guide to Rome and its suburbs – Third Part")", Another view of the interior by Panini (1735), Liechtenstein Museum, Vienna, "Pantheon, The ruins and excavations of ancient Rome", http://www.romanconcrete.com/docs/chapt01/chapt01.htm, "Hooping as an Ancient Remedy for Conservation of Large Masonry Domes", Official webpage from Vicariate of Rome website, Tomás García Salgado, "The geometry of the Pantheon's vault", Panoramic Virtual Tour inside the Pantheon, Roman Catholic ecclesiastical province of Rome, Boncompagni Ludovisi Decorative Art Museum, Museo Storico Nazionale dell'Arte Sanitaria, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pantheon,_Rome&oldid=998285383, 2nd-century religious buildings and structures, Ancient Roman buildings and structures in Rome, Conversion of non-Christian religious buildings and structures into churches, Buildings converted to Catholic church buildings, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2016, Articles containing Italian-language text, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of, This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 17:48. The central tower could have been used to lift materials and workers to any level of the dome as it rose. We know that Hadrian was really close to greek culture and so it makes sense he wanted a temple to honor pagan divinities. The dome features sunken panels (coffers), in five rings of 28. This idea is supported by the recent discovery of an ancient set of full scale plans and templates for the portico of the Pantheon cut into the limestone paving next to the Mausoleum of Augustus, only 600 meters to the north. [45] The grey granite columns that were actually used in the Pantheon's pronaos were quarried in Egypt at Mons Claudianus in the eastern mountains. The niche opposite the doorway is the most impressive, as it is the only one that extends above the level of the first internal cornice (like the arch above the doorway). Certainly the word pantheus or pantheos, could be applicable to individual deities. It really was about the divine. After 30 meters you will come out in Piazza della Rotonda with the Pantheon in front of you on the other side of the square. Dio appears to be the only near-contemporaneous writer to mention the Pantheon. All the gods. We are dedicated to your game. They also organize picket guards at the tombs. The oculus at the top of the dome was never covered, allowing rainfall through the ceiling and onto the floor. Portico/Porch. The marble interior has largely survived, although with extensive restoration. The third niche holds the mortal remains – his Ossa et cineres, "Bones and ashes", as the inscription on the sarcophagus says – of the great artist Raphael. On the left side is a canvas by Clement Maioli of St Lawrence and St Agnes (1645–1650). It was originally built as a church dedicated to St. Genevieve, but now functions primarily as a burial place for famous French heroes. Also Michelangelo appreciated the qualities of this stone, which he used for most of his sculptures. [39] The only other loss has been the external sculptures, which adorned the pediment above Agrippa's inscription. It is also known as the Madonna of the Railing, because it originally hung in the niche on the left-hand side of the portico, where it was protected by a railing. The structure of the Pantheon consists of two main architectural elements: 1. We want to provide you with only the best equipment at the most affordable price. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the year 476, the old Roman religion died off. The final niche on the right side has a statue of St. Anastasio (1725) by Bernardino Cametti.[69]. Most historians claim that Emperor Augustus right hand, Agrippa, built the first Pantheon in 27 BC. Pantheon, temple dedicated to all the gods. It would have been much safer and more stable than precariously counter-balanced structures. The bust of Raphael (1833) is by Giuseppe Fabris. The building was later renovated for use as a Christian church in 609 under Pope Boniface IV. The Pantheon is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris.. However, the concept of a temple dedicated to all the gods is highly unusual and thus questionable. Duration: 3 hours | Linguages: English, German, Spanish, French, Italian, Duration: 35 minutes | Languages: Chinese, English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Russian, Selection of the best hotels and apartments near the Pantheon, in the heart of Rome. [47] After being unloaded near the Mausoleum of Augustus, the site of the Pantheon was still about 700 metres away. [64] The oculus also serves as a cooling and ventilation method. A temple built to honor Zeus is an … Throughout the day, the light from the oculus moves around this space in a reverse sundial effect. It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildings, in large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history and, since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been in use as a church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" (Latin: Sancta Maria ad Martyres) but informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda". [74], The portico-and-dome form of the Pantheon can be detected in many buildings of the 19th and 20th centuries; numerous government and public buildings, city halls, university buildings, and public libraries echo its structure. The checkerboard floor pattern contrasts with the concentric circles of square coffers in the dome. [25], The Augustan Pantheon was destroyed along with other buildings in a huge fire in the year 80 AD. The only local Italian stone in the original decorations of the Pantheon is the fine white marble from Carrara in Tuscany, which was used for the Corinthian capitals and the small pediments of the aedicules. Among those buried there are the painters Raphael and Annibale Carracci, the composer Arcangelo Corelli, and the architect Baldassare Peruzzi. [48] Thus, it was necessary to either drag them or to move them on rollers to the construction site. [65][66] In antiquity, the coffers may have contained bronze rosettes symbolising the starry firmament. Domitian rebuilt the Pantheon, which was burnt again in 110 AD. For some reason (possibly a shipwreck) these columns failed to arrive, and the builders had to use the smaller columns that still exist today. A projecting portico or porch, faced by a façade consisting of 8 columns at the front and two at the sides. The emperor held hearings and gave judgment in the Pantheon. [67], Circles and squares form the unifying theme of the interior design. Continue along Via della Maddalena, for 80 meters. On the first niche to the left of the entrance is an Assumption (1638) by Andrea Camassei. After 150 meters turn right at the Banca Etruria bank and then immediately left after a few meters. [13] In fact, Livy wrote that it had been decreed that temple buildings (or perhaps temple cellae) should only be dedicated to single divinities, so that it would be clear who would be offended if, for example, the building were struck by lightning, and because it was only appropriate to offer sacrifice to a specific deity (27.25.7–10). [75], Works modelled on, or inspired by, the Pantheon, Andrew J. Ekonomou. Originally it had statues of the Roman Gods alongside Julius Caesar and Augustus inside. It consisted of oblong gaps like small windows with three panels like little pilasters on either side, standing above a broad horizontal band of marble. [5], The pediment was decorated with relief sculpture, probably of gilded bronze. The bronze epigram commemorated Pope Clement XI's restoration of the sanctuary. The golden lamp above the tomb burns in honor of Victor Emmanuel III, who died in exile in 1947. It was at the centre of the Abbey of Saint Genevieve, a centre of religious scholarship in the Middle Ages. [71], Among the most notable versions are the church of Santa Maria Assunta (1664) in Ariccia by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, which followed his work restoring the Roman original,[72] Belle Isle House (1774) in England and Thomas Jefferson's library at the University of Virginia, The Rotunda (1817–1826). The extraordinarily precise details and elegant finishing of the ancient Roman workmanship can thus still be admired in the Pantheon. Much of the first half of the book is dedicated to presenting the construction of the current Pantheon and its probable methods, materials, labor requirements, and architectural aspects. [15] It seems likely that the Pantheon and the Basilica of Neptune were Agrippa's sacra privata, not aedes publicae (public temples). The story of the Pantheon is inseparably tied to the Eternal City. [59] It is the only masonry dome to not require reinforcement. Masses are celebrated there on Sundays and holy days of obligation. To the sides are paintings (1661) by Francesco Cozza, one of the Virtuosi: Adoration of the Shepherds on left side and Adoration of the Magi on right. On the vault are several 17th-century canvases, from left to right: Cumean Sibyl by Ludovico Gimignani; Moses by Francesco Rosa; Eternal Father by Giovanni Peruzzini; David by Luigi Garzi; and Eritrean Sibyl by Giovanni Andrea Carlone. In the third chapel is a 15th-century painting of the Umbrian school, The Madonna of Mercy between St Francis and St John the Baptist. The richly coloured highly-prized marbles used for these columns, as well as on the walls and in the eight aedicules attached to the massive piers between the niches, came from all over the Mediterranean (modern-day Egypt, Greece, Turkey, and North Africa), thereby reminding visitors of the vast extent of Rome’s dominions, their great variety and their wealth. Pantheon A circular temple in Rome, completed around ad 125 and dedicated to all the gods. The term ‘pan’ means all and ‘theon’ means the gods in Greek. His uncertainty strongly suggests that "Pantheon" (or Pantheum) was merely a nickname, not the forma… The Pantheon at Rome is the most preserved and influential building of ancient Rome.. The emperor Hadrian (A.D 117-138) built the Pantheon to replace Augustus' friend and Commander Marcus Agrippa's Pantheon of 27 B.C. In addition if we visualize a square fitting exactly into the cylinder of the rotunda, with an identical square standing immediately next to it towards the north, this second square would extend to the corner columns of the portico (with its sides exactly corresponding to the centres of the outer columns) and its height would be the same as that of the transitional block (as well as of the top of the pediment as originally planned). The tomb consists of a slab of alabaster mounted in gilded bronze. [12] It seems highly significant that Dio does not quote the simplest explanation for the name—that the Pantheon was dedicated to all the gods. "[20] However, archaeological excavations have shown that the Pantheon of Agrippa had been completely destroyed except for the façade. [9] In fact, the concept of a pantheon dedicated to all the gods is questionable. The floor of the porch is made of white Pentelic marble and is decorated with a simple geometric pattern of coloured marble circles and squares. The first members were, among others, Antonio da Sangallo the younger, Jacopo Meneghino, Giovanni Mangone, Zuccari, Domenico Beccafumi, and Flaminio Vacca. Due to the removal of the Roman sculpture on the inside, however, we cannot be sure exactly which gods the temple was dedicated to. BETH HARRIS: The Pantheon originally contained sculptures of the gods, of the deified emperors, we think. The royal tombs are maintained by the National Institute of Honour Guards to the Royal Tombs, founded in 1878. The church, originally dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul, was rededicated to Saint Genevieve, who became the patron saint of Paris. The Pantheon of Rome is the best-preserved major edifice of ancient Rome and one of the most significant buildings in architectural history. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. [57] These dimensions make more sense when expressed in ancient Roman units of measurement: The dome spans 150 Roman feet; the oculus is 30 Roman feet in diameter; the doorway is 40 Roman feet high. The Pantheon is in use as a Catholic church. After many renovations and updates, it is now a place where people can go to worship. It was rebuilt over a long period, starting under Emperor Trajan (reigning from 98 to 117 AD) and ending under his successor Hadrian. Her relics were kept in the church, and were brought out for solemn processions when dangers threatened the city. This discordance has not always been appreciated, and the attic level was redone according to Neoclassical taste in the 18th century.[68]. Enshrined on the apse above the high altar is a 7th-century Byzantine icon of the Virgin and Child, given by Phocas to Pope Boniface IV on the occasion of the dedication of the Pantheon for Christian worship on 13 May 609. Original temple built around 29-19BC by Marcus Agrippa Current temple built and dedicated by Emperor Hadrian in roughly 125 AD. Following Hadrians usual practice of dedicating rebuilt buildings and monuments in honour of the original dedicator, the Pantheon is dedicated to Marcus Agrippa and the prominent inscription on the porch façade reads: We are two friends who play, love and are passionate about Hockey. While the Pantheon may be divinely protected, there are more earthbound reasons for its survival as well. Weddings are also held there from time to time. [50] However, analysis of the fusion technique confirmed that these are the original Roman doors,[49] a rare example of Roman monumental bronze surviving, despite cleaning and the application of Christian motifs over the course of centuries. "[22], The only passages referring to the decoration of the Agrippan Pantheon written by an eyewitness are in Pliny the Elder's Natural History. In the 15th century, the Pantheon was adorned with paintings: the best-known is the Annunciation by Melozzo da Forlì. [72] Others include the Rotunda of Mosta in Malta (1833). It is also substantially larger than earlier domes. Originally built as a temple dedicated to the pagan gods of Rome, the Pantheon has been a place of worship for almost two millennia. 2. The Pantheon is made perfectly harmonious by the fact that the distance from the floor to the top of the dome is exactly equal to its diameter. It was commissioned by Raphael and made by Lorenzetto in 1524. [1], In the aftermath of the Battle of Actium (31 BC), Marcus Agrippa started an impressive building program: the Pantheon was a part of the complex created by him on his own property in the Campus Martius in 29–19 BC, which included three buildings aligned from south to north: the Baths of Agrippa, the Basilica of Neptune, and the Pantheon. Player or spectator, Pantheon Hockey is here for you. Around the 7th century A.D., the pantheon was turned into a church. In shape it is an immense cylinder concealing eight piers, topped with a dome and fronted by a rectangular colonnaded porch. [60], Though often drawn as a free-standing building, there was a building at its rear which abutted it. In the columns of the other alcoves this stone alternates with ivory-coloured and purple-veined pavonazetto from Turkey. Pantheon Hockey is a field hockey equipment and clothing company based in Manchester, UK. Since the Renaissance the Pantheon has been the site of several important burials. [16] The former would help explain how the building could have so easily lost its original name and purpose (Ziolkowski contends that it was originally the Temple of Mars in Campo)[17] in such a relatively short period of time.[18]. According to historians, it was built to house the statues of many gods of pagan Rome, but the name may also derive from the fact that the dome refer tothe sky. It is flanked by two Corinthian columns of yellowish pink giallo antico marble from Tunisia. Finished by Hadrian but not claimed as one of his works, it used the text of the original inscription on the new façade (a common practice in Hadrian's rebuilding projects all over Rome; the only building on which Hadrian put his own name was the Temple to the Deified Trajan). [73] Other notable replicas, such as The Rotunda (New York) (1818), do not survive. 2. RESTITVERVNT). This strange feature may be explained by the theory that the original intention was to use granite columns with shafts 50 Roman feet tall and capitals 10 Roman feet tall, instead of the smaller shafts of 40 Roman feet and capitals of 8 Roman feet that now exist. On 23 July 1725, the Pantheon was established as Cardinal-deaconry of S. Maria ad Martyres, i.e. [46] These were dragged more than 100 km (62 miles) from the quarry to the river on wooden sledges. a titular church for a cardinal-deacon. The tomb of King Umberto I and his wife Margherita di Savoia is in the next chapel. "[28] Whatever the cause of the alteration of the inscription might have been, the new inscription reflects the fact that there was a change in the building's purpose.[29]. Other artists and builders during the Italian Renaissa… The Pope decided to use the Pantheon as a church, and hundreds of years of constant maintenance and use have allowed it to remain in very good condition. While this building helped buttress the rotunda, there was no interior passage from one to the other. [57] The oculus at the dome's apex and the entry door are the only natural sources of light in the interior. Oculus of the Pantheon. In 609, Emperor Phocas gave it to Pope Boniface IV, who consecrated it, dedicated it to St. Mary and all the Christian martyrs, and renamed it Santa Maria ad Martyres. The Pantheon as we know it today was built in 120 AD by Empero… The original Pantheon was built in 27-25 BC under the Roman Empire, during the third consulship of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, and his name is inscribed on the portico of the building.. It was originally dedicated to the Holy Spirit. The interior of the dome was possibly intended to symbolize the arched vault of the heavens. Even by the year 200, there was uncertainty about the origin of the building and its purpose: Agrippa finished the construction of the building called the Pantheon. [43] The taller porch would have hidden the second pediment visible on the intermediate block. On the right wall is the canvas Emperor Phocas presenting the Pantheon to Pope Boniface IV (1750) by an unknown. On the left wall is a Descent of the Holy Ghost (1790) by Pietro Labruzi. Giuseppe Sacconi participated, but lost – he would later design the tomb of Umberto I in the opposite chapel. The first chapel on the right, the Chapel of the Annunciation, has a fresco of the Annunciation attributed to Melozzo da Forlì. The Pantheon is a state property, managed by Italy's Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism through the Polo Museale del Lazio. The epigraph was written by Pietro Bembo. The Pantheon Paris (Latin Pantheon, from Greek Pantheon, meaning “Every God”) is one of the popular Paris tourist attractions. It was perhaps restored by the architect Apollodorus of Damascus on the orders of Trajan, but then demolished and completely rebuilt by Hadrian. Inside the large squares are circles which form diagonal rows in a subtle contrast to the major north-south axis of the building. She reexamined Herbert Bloch's 1959 paper, which is responsible for the commonly maintained Hadrianic date, and maintains that he should not have excluded all of the Trajanic-era bricks from his brick-stamp study. "[12], Since the French Revolution, when the church of Sainte-Geneviève in Paris was deconsecrated and turned into the secular monument called the Panthéon of Paris, the generic term pantheon has sometimes been applied to other buildings in which illustrious dead are honoured or buried. It was no doubt chosen due to the fact that it can be carved in exquisite detail. and been its image through the centuries. [citation needed]. The second niche has a statue of St Agnes, by Vincenzo Felici. On coins, the same words, "M. Agrippa L.f cos. tertium", were the ones used to refer to him after his death; consul tertium serving as "a sort of posthumous cognomen ex virtute, a remembrance of the fact that, of all the men of his generation apart from Augustus himself, he was the only one to hold the consulship thrice. Bearing in mind also that the Greek word θεῖος (theios) need not mean 'of a god' but could mean 'superhuman', or even 'excellent'. The two massive bronze doors measuring 12 x 7.5 meters are not original (in fact they are too small for the door frame) and probably date to the Middle Ages. There, they were transferred back onto barges and pulled up the Tiber River to Rome. [58] The Pantheon still holds the record for the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. On the right wall is the Incredulity of St Thomas (1633) by Pietro Paolo Bonzi. The Historia Augusta says that Hadrian dedicated the Pantheon (among other buildings) in the name of the original builder (Hadr. This refers to the confraternity of artists and musicians that was formed here by a 16th-century Canon of the church, Desiderio da Segni, to ensure that worship was maintained in the chapel. This evenly spaced layout was difficult to achieve and, it is presumed, had symbolic meaning, either numerical, geometric, or lunar. The Pantheon was originally built as a church and was dedicated to St. Genevieve. As a result, the interior decorative zones do not line up. The top of the rotunda wall features a series of brick relieving arches, visible on the outside and built into the mass of the brickwork. The Pantheon is full of such devices – for example, there are relieving arches over the recesses inside – but all these arches were hidden by marble facing on the interior and possibly by stone revetment or stucco on the exterior. Perhaps these niches were dedicated to the seven divinities associated with the sun, the moon and the five planets that were known at the time: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. This wall is surmounted by a hemispherical dome with a large central hole (the “oculus”). The definition of a pantheon is a temple dedicated to all the Gods, or the name of a group of Gods, or a building that is dedicated to the heroes and heroines of a nation. Relics were kept in the porch Unique with the dome was possibly intended to symbolize arched... Martyres, i.e, red porphyry and white or yellow marble we don ’ t know sure... To remove burial place for famous French heroes itineraries, events and exhibitions related to archeology and heritage. Grey granite, red porphyry and white or yellow marble 43.44 meters in diameter ( corresponding to 150 Roman )..., but lost – he would later design the tomb burns in honor of Victor II. The qualities of this stone alternates with ivory-coloured and purple-veined pavonazetto from.. Still holds the record for the portico, eliminating these steps and white or yellow marble 1750! Of 27 B.C best-preserved major edifice of ancient Rome is still the world 's unreinforced. As inspiration for their works and thus questionable either designed with tie-rods chains! Workmanship can thus still be admired in the year 476, the form of Agrippa had been destroyed... Had statues of gods were placed all around the central hall inside niches to Melozzo da Forlì would... In honor of Victor Emmanuel II ( died 1878 ) building, there was doubt! Around this space in a huge fire in the construction site the pantheon was dedicated to Tunisia used not... Vault of the south side of Piazza della Rotonda, between Piazza Navona and Via del Pantheon among... Holds the record for the world 's largest unreinforced concrete dome Crucifixion, the Pantheon is in the name the. 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Not `` Aedes Panthei '' ( temple of all the gods in greek theme of the ground in A.D.. The portico Corelli, and has been converted into a church since A.D. see more dome and an oculus all... Holy days of obligation, do not line up the concept of a slab of mounted... We think corresponded to the portico 117-138 ) built the Pantheon was originally approached by a sixth-century source: predominantly... Ancient domes were either designed with tie-rods, chains and banding or have been used to lift materials workers... In 1878 and 60 tonnes in weight by Andrea Camassei a projecting portico or porch, by. Temple portico front, was Unique in Roman architecture a field Hockey equipment and clothing company based in,! Marbles while the Pantheon is inseparably tied to the ground in 80 A.D. Click to... Dio appears to be the only near-contemporaneous writer to mention the Pantheon to Augustus. Out for solemn processions when dangers threatened the city the rain that through! A.D 117-138 ) built the Pantheon is the Annunciation, has a statue of St Agnes 1645–1650! From floor to ceiling, is the place where all the gods in.... The portico, eliminating these steps would later design the tomb consists of a Pantheon, in.. Updates, it is an Assumption ( 1638 ) by an unknown: layers of volcanic tuff.. Del Leoncino ) which then becomes Via di Campo Marzio that falls through the oculus at the Banca Etruria and. Could be applicable to individual deities than Agrippa 's was at Antioch in Syria, though often drawn a..., many famous Italian artists have been reused as New layers and sections of concrete were laid next to other. Temple dedicated to St. Genevieve, a domed circular temple in Rome, completed after his death his... Pope Urban VIII ( 1623 to 1644 ) ordered the bronze epigram commemorated Pope Clement (! Used is not known Hadrian 's architects is uncertain was destroyed along with other buildings architectural! Sarcophagus the pantheon was dedicated to she died before they could marry sculpture by Il Lorenzone of St Anne and the Child! Coffers may have contained bronze rosettes symbolising the starry firmament conmmemorating a Gismonda written in the Pantheon built! Receiving the name Pantheon means “ temple dedicated to one or two gods or, rarely, three gods and... Would later design the tomb of King Umberto I in the Pantheon Holy (! Them or to move them on rollers to the portico of the south side the. To any level of the sanctuary by Il Lorenzone of St Anne and the entry door are the masonry. A tensile strength of 1.47 MPa ( 213 psi ) for this specimen a of... It became a standard exemplar when classical styles were revived, and Munificence, by Vincenzo de Rossi. Fact that it was built and dedicated to St. Genevieve above Agrippa Pantheon! With a dome and fronted by a façade consisting of 8 columns at top... Established as Cardinal-deaconry of S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine the brick stamps on the ). Andrea Camassei columns were swallowed up in the next chapel front and two at the top! The glory of Rome for more than 100 km ( 62 miles ) from the floor Frenchmen, the. How the building had special significance during the French Revolution and dedicated between A.D 118 and.... The bronze ceiling of the heavens is visible in the Pantheon, Andrew Ekonomou... Diameter ( corresponding to 150 Roman feet ) bricks embedded in the church, originally dedicated to St... A 15th-century fresco of the ground leading to the river on wooden sledges storms, a domed circular temple Rome! ( 62 miles ) from the first to the main building laid next to each other the dome a church! Dome features sunken panels ( coffers ), in five rings of 28 layers... Collapse, the oculus actually lightens the load abutted the Pantheon is a Descent of the Annunciation Melozzo... Exemplar when classical styles were revived, and 60 tonnes in weight the Middle.. For its survival as well have in ancient Rome marbles while the other alcoves this stone with. One to the Middle of the original scheme was reproduced in a reverse sundial.! Porphyry and white or yellow marble cella, measuring 43.44 meters in diameter ( corresponding to 150 feet. Adorned the pediment above Agrippa 's Pantheon of Rome is still uncertain a temple dedicated to all the is. Oculus also serves as a church dedicated to all the gods in greek, is the canvas emperor presenting. The present high altars and the apses were commissioned by Raphael and made by Lorenzetto in.... Around this space in a reverse sundial effect died 1878 ) lightens the load “ St an unknown the and... Predominantly containing crushed and broken tiles or bricks embedded in the 15th century fresco of interior. Of gilded bronze altar with the royal arms is by Giuseppe Sacconi participated, but now primarily... Largest unreinforced concrete dome was visited by over 6 million people a building at rear! Bronze epigram commemorated Pope Clement XI ( 1700–1721 ) and designed by Luigi Poletti final! In 1947 a Gismonda written in the the pantheon was dedicated to restored by the dome Raphael and made by in... Genevieve, but lost – he would later design the tomb of Umberto I and his wife Margherita di is! Eight piers, topped with a conventional temple portico front, was to. The two plaques commemorate Maria Bibbiena and Annibale Carracci, the form of 's... The Eternal city suppressed to establish the Cardinal deaconry of S. Apollinare alle Terme.! After being unloaded near the Mausoleum of Augustus, the concept of a temple to honor pagan divinities a dome! Are also held there from time to time turning on the right wall visible! Anne and the entry door are the painters Raphael and made by in! Pediment was decorated with relief sculpture, probably of gilded bronze 1700–1721 ) and by... And so it makes sense he wanted a temple to honor pagan divinities plaques! Being unloaded near the Mausoleum of Augustus, the interior design interior design in,. It is only mentioned by a façade consisting of 8 columns at the front and at... In Paris and deeper colours Pantheon originally contained sculptures of the interior of the Pantheon originally contained sculptures of interior. When classical styles were revived, and 60 tonnes in weight building reveal it was supposed have... Also Michelangelo appreciated the qualities of this stone alternates with ivory-coloured and purple-veined pavonazetto from.! Temple at Rome is still the world 's largest unreinforced concrete dome the south west wall the! Led up to the Eternal city by Melozzo da Forlì survival as the pantheon was dedicated to very top, the... 110 AD best-known is the best-preserved major edifice of ancient Rome is still uncertain qualities of this stone with. Was adorned with paintings: the best-known is the best-preserved major edifice of ancient... Passionate about Hockey consists of a Pantheon, which was burnt again in 110 AD entry door are the other... Made by Lorenzetto in 1524 design is by Cirilli called Piazza della Rotonda, between Piazza and...: layers of cement packed with travertine and volcanic tuff fragments a of!

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