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20 Jan 2021

This increases the risk of flooding and further enhances erosion of water banks, since the water seeks the way to flow around a newly created obstruction. The major effects of soil erosion include: Loss of Arable Land Soil erosion removes the top fertile layer of the soil. In some cases, it is the combination of more of these factors that influence soil stability and health. (A) illustrates the soil erosion rates divided into seven classes according to the European Soil Bureau classification. Mining, one of the activities that enabled the growth of our economies, has severely scared the face of our planet and destroyed many unique habitats without mercy. Increased runoff, for example, leads to frequent flooding after rain, while soil overall becomes drier because it loses its water holding capacity over the long term. Soil erosion is agriculture’s enemy: a major environmental threat to sustainability and productivity with knock-on effects on the climate crisis and food security. The soil which erodes from our fields will also settle into our rivers, lakes, … Land degradation is defined as the long-term loss of soil productivity and ability to provide crucial ecosystem services for the proper health and functioning of our planet. According to a scientific study in Sahara desert, sand dunes can move by 50 to 295 feet throughout one year. The heavy layers of sediment keep streams and rivers from flowing smoothly, eventually leading to flooding. Erosion by wind or water is greatly responsible for nearly 85 percent of soil degradation throughout the world [13]. This results in the loss of topsoil and will affect the health of the whole ecosystem as well as our capability to make the use of it – for growing crops, for example. Soil structure solution. Erosion by wind is a common sight in dry and barren areas where vegetation doesn’t hold soils in place. Depending on the duration and intensity of a rainfall, soils can exhibit signs of one of the four forms of the damage, including: Starting with the minor soil disruption caused by the impact of falling raindrops, splash erosion moves around small particles in the upper soil layer. Crop emergence, growth and yield are directly affected by the loss of natural nutrients and applied fertilizers. The accumulation of soil and crop debris at the. When it rains, most of the rainwater runs down the hill. One dust storm creating a wall of 2 miles and traveling over 2,000 miles even reached the New York City, giving the first-hand experience of powerful erosive forces to its residents [8]. We are a couple of environmentalists who seek inspiration for life in simple values based on our love for nature. … Greentumble is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. Once soil erosion occurs, it is more likely to happen again. Mudslides occur when fine sand, clay, silt, organic matter and soil spill off the sides of hills and slopes as a result of the force and energy of heavy rainfall. Only a minority of areas have good soils, which after clearing are quickly washed away by the heavy rains. alarming levels of soil erosion in Tanzania, Negative Effects of Overgrazing for Native Species, Why Is Biodiversity Important to Ecosystems, 200,000 hectares of land in the Philippines, heavy metals, agricultural chemicals and other contaminants. With previously cultivated lands turning into deserts, many communities across the world are losing their only chance of providing enough food for themselves or their livestock. Trees help hold soil in place, so when they're uprooted, winds and rains push the loose soil and rocks to streams and rivers, again resulting in unwanted sedimentation. Pesticides and other chemicals can get trapped in soil, polluting streams and rivers as the soil breaks apart. Since loss of topsoil decreases water quality, fish, algae and animals will suffer the consequences. Effects of Erosion. Water pollutants result in poor water quality -- including the quality of drinking water if the pollutants aren't removed before consumption. Considering how many protective functions vegetation cover has, it should come as no surprise that changes of land cover can be a primary cause of erosion in areas that previously haven’t suffered of this problem. Sedimentation also leads to the excessive growth of algae, as sunlight can get through the sediment. Despite the access to modern technology and modelling tools, erosion still unpleasantly surprises many project designers. According to the World Wildlife Fund, a group of Brazilian Indians reported significant decreases in fish numbers, which are due to agricultural soil erosion and increased pesticide runoff. Soil erosion occurs when upper layers of soil are removed from their original location in the process that is either slow and goes unnoticed for long periods of time or can be sudden and cause immediate damage (for example: appearance of a rill in the middle of a crop field after heavy rain). Soil particles are washed off into rivers, giving water a specific red color and leaving patches of eroded red dirt dispersed all over the land. These vast surfaces are changed forever. Mongolia is one of the countries with a high vulnerability to desertification. You may notice this development after flooding. All these events strip soils bare and allow erosion to take place. Soil is not immune to erosion, and like rocks along a coastline, soil can erode due to the effects of forces, such as water, wind and farming practices. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, agricultural methods, such as purposely leaving organic matter in the soil and ensuring that at least 30 percent of the previous year's crop residue remain in the soil, increase the fertility and vitality of the soil. When an area gets flooded, most of the vegetation is stripped away, which leaves originally covered soils fully exposed to the erosive force of rain. Soils with a loamy texture, consisting of fine sand and silt particles, are generally more prone to water erosion. Disturbed soils also do not absorb water as much as they naturally would. Land use, soil type, and topography are the other key factors. Erosion is more likely to take a place on hilly sites. Erosion can remove this nutrient source. The weight of vehicles and soil erosion are taking a heavy toll on roads in Morrumbala district, Zambézia, where rehabilitation works cost 20 million meticais annually. High sedimentation rates also damage hydro-electricity plants and decrease the lifetime of constructed water reservoirs. The cumulative effect of erosion on soil properties that are important to productivity and grain yields were examined. We can see the effect of this after heavy rains when small water streams find their way down a hiking trail. Soil erosion is an unfathomable enemy that often goes unnoticed right in front of our eyes and slowly eat away the most precious resource we have – our soil. Its effects can be seen directly in the location where erosion takes place, known as on-site effects, and at the site where the eroded soil deposits – off-site. As curriculum developer and educator, Kristine Tucker has enjoyed the plethora of English assignments she's read (and graded!) over the years. With the same ease and frequency as sand dunes move, light particles of dirt and dust can get carried by wind in many vulnerable areas. Climate change is likely to affect soil erosion by water through its effect on rainfall intensity, soil erodibility, vegetative cover, and patterns of land use. One of … Soil erosion is a global issue and we can see its traits everywhere we go. Such negative impacts to aquatic ecosystems can also ultimately impact any species that prey on those aquatic species that are intolerant to turbid waters, potentially impacting the whole food chain of entire ecosystems. In addition to erosion, soil quality is affected by other aspects of agriculture. Numerous cases from the past could help describe how agriculture contributes to soil erosion, but perhaps one of the best examples is the ‘Dust Bowl’ that turn nearly 150 million acres of land into a dry and dusty wasteland in the North America’s Midwest and Southern Great Plains in 1930s [7]. It is so much soil that it doesn’t go unnoticed. Erosion causes a loss of productive top-soil, a deposition of infertile sand on productive fields, a silting of reservoirs, and a lowering of the ground-water table. Without healthy soils life cannot exist. The outcome are deep gullies (up to 26 feet!) Pollutants in the soil, such as fertilizers and pest control agents used to protect crops, also settle in the streams and rivers. And even though the soil was healthy and resistant prior deforestation, after clearing, it will be easily washed away by rain. Grain by grain, sand and dirt is picked up by wind from mismanaged lands and pushed farther and farther into new territories, slowly swallowing remaining vegetation and turning the area into the wasteland. When the crops failed, barren land remained fully exposed to the erosive forces of wind, which gave rise to massive dust storms. The most destructive force of a flowing body of water occurs during the period of floods. Soil erosion eats away the top soil which is the fertile layer of the land and also the component that supports … Air pollution can lead to human health problems such as asthma which is directly linked to airborne dust. The same scenario happens when off-road biking, horse riding, having fun with ATVs or parking cars on the side of the road. Reduction of soil fertility; Repeated erosion washes away the topsoil. This is particularly true for places with the highest risk of erosion , such as watersheds in Indonesia, India, the Philippines and more. 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