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20 Jan 2021

(1989). Lin, B. Community Development Journal, 38(3), 199–212. However, in most studies it remains unclear whether the positive effects of crop diversification resulted directly from consumption of the food crops, or through selling them. Farm production diversity and dietary quality: Linkages and measurement issues. The Journal of Development Studies, 54(2), 256–270. Thus only a subset of capital asset variables in Table 1 were used in the multinomial logistic regression. Development Southern Africa, 35(1), 90–104. Sustainable rural livelihoods: Practical concepts for the 21 Modified versions of the HFIAS have been found to be robust tools for assessessing food security in other parts of Ethiopia (Gebreyesus et al. This suggests that including khat as a binomial variable did not unduly influence the results. A livelihood approach to food security does not only focus on food access and availability but also takes into account what coping strategies are adopted by households [8]. (1999). 3. Nutrition security results from the combination of household food s… In a study in Malawi, Radchenko and Corral (2018) found varied effects of agricultural commercialization on nutritional outcomes for households in different tiers of the population – benefitting some and harming others. Quisumbing, A. R., Rubin, D., Manfre, C., Waithanji, E., van den Bold, M., Olney, D., Johnson, N., & Meinzen-Dick, R. (2015). (2011). Rogan, M. (2018). 2014) on the grounds that it will improve food security through economic growth. We conducted a survey in southwestern Ethiopia and used principal component and cluster analyses. We conjecture that for households in southwest Ethiopia, the feature of diverse crops in the livelihood strategies may be motivated not so much by economic profitability and capital asset accumulation but by the basic need to ensure households’ direct access to food. (2013) How do different indicators of household food security compare? The observed importance of diverse food crops in local livelihood strategies is consistent with the findings of Fafchamps (1992), who observed the critical importance of staple consumption for survival. Households had an average of six members (see Table 2 for household characteristics by livelihood strategy). Thus, rural households engage in to different livelihood diversification activities to ensure their food needs and secure their future livelihoods. Our study showed that combinations of food crops and cash crops, particularly diverse food crops, were important for the food security of households. 2012) exemplify the potential economic benefits (and indirectly food security benefits) resulting from intensive engagement in cash crop production. All authors declare no conflict of interest involved in this work. This visualization shows that households undertaking livelihood strategies with a higher number of food crops (lower right hand corner) were more food secure than those with a lower number of food crops (upper left hand corner). In Sulawesi, Indonesia, Belsky and Siebert (2003) found that food self-sufficiency would likely decline with conversion of food-crop focused swidden fields to cocoa farms. Agricultural commercialization and food security in rural economies: Malawian experience. Mice: Multivariate imputation by chained equations in R. Journal of Statistical Software, 45(3), 1–67. Crop diversification, dietary diversity and agricultural income: Empirical evidence from eight developing countries. This recall period was longer than used in most other studies. 2013). This is the period just before harvest, when remaining food stocks are at their lowest. ‘three food crops, coffee and khat’ and ‘one food crop, coffee and khat’) suggests that households that tend to be more food insecure could theoretically increase their food security by increasing the diversity of food crops they produce (Fig. The production diversity of subsistence farms in the Bolivian Andes is associated with the quality of child feeding practices as measured by a validated summary feeding index. Canadian Journal of Development Studies/Revue canadienne d’études du développement, 35(2), 211–227. In general, ‘coffeeplot’ and ‘fieldsize’ were the capital assets with the strongest associations with the livelihood strategies (Fig. Third, to determine whether food security measured through HFIAS scores responded significantly to the types of livelihood strategies and socio-demographic variables such as the gender of household head, age, household size, number of ill household members, and educational attainment of the household head (objective 3), we ran a generalized linear model using a quasi-Poisson error distribution to account for overdispersion. Food and nutrition technical assistance project. The seminal work by Chambers and colleagues (Chambers 1987; Chambers and Ghildyal 1985; Chambers and Conway 1992) emphasized placing people at the center of scientific inquiry into poverty, food security, and environmental degradation and gave rise to livelihoods thinking. Social and cultural perceptions regarding food security and health in the departments of Bolivar and La Guajira, in the Caribbean region of Colombia. Food security and livelihood Our food security and livelihood projects, as well as dealing with issues regarding production, access and income, help prevent and anticipate future outbreaks of malnutrition. We thank Feyera Senbeta for facilitating our research and helpful discussions. Journal of Development Studies, 42(2), 178–199. The livelihood strategy ‘three food crops and khat’ (lower left hand corner) had higher engagement in sharecropping and had more livestock. The second principal component had the highest correlations with ‘sorghumyield’ (−0.84), ‘teffyield’ (−0.40) and ‘coffeeyield’ (0.31) (Table 4). The livelihood strategy ‘three food crops, coffee and khat’ was associated with a wide range of capital assets, particularly having larger aggregate farm field size and learning from other farmers. A., Degefa, S., Gasparatos, A., & Saito, O. Household food insecurity (HFI) is the result of poverty, poor health of the household member or members, and suboptimal livelihood and household management strategies (6). ISBN 0-387-95457-0. 72. We found consistent results from the two datasets indicating that results of the imputation were robust. The strategy ‘two food crops and khat’ (upper left hand corner) did not show strong positive association with any particular capital asset. Improvements to gender equality thus emerge as an important precondition for achieving food security (Njuki et al. In Fig. Coping strategies are defined as temporary responses forced by food insecurity. Male headed- households tended to have better food security than female-headed households. In addition to this, empirical studies consistently show that diversification to non-farm livelihood strategies enables farm households to have better incomes, enhance food security, and increase agricultural production by smoothing capital constraints and help coping with environmental stresses [3, 4, 11, 12]. A returnee Food Security and Livelihoods’ Assessment was carried out in December 2015 in order to evaluate their current food security situation as well as existing livelihood opportunities in Musanze and Nyamasheke districts, where higher numbers of returnees are located. Farm production diversity is associated with greater household dietary diversity in Malawi: Findings from nationally representative data. 2000). Journal of Agricultural Economics, 51(2), 289–302. This was implemented with the assistance of two trained enumerators. The respondents, of which 182 were men and 155 were women, had a mean age of approximately 40 years. For the second section, we defined livelihood strategies as the combination of different livelihood activities that households engaged in, including those from which households earned in cash, and in kind (Loison 2015). The Livelihoods and Food Security Fund (LIFT) aims to strengthen the resilience and sustainable livelihoods of poor households in Myanmar by helping people reach their full economic potential. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL: We defined livelihoods as being comprised of the strategies and assets required to make a living (Scoones 1998). Correspondence to The next strategy consisted mainly of the food crops maize and teff, and involved coffee and khat (‘two food crops, coffee and khat’, n = 78). Similarly, in our study, cash crops played an important role in income generation. (Eds.). 2011; Martin et al. & Melesse, A. M. (2014) Surface water and groundwater resources of Ethiopia: Potentials and challenges of water resources development. There were other livelihood activities in the area including the cultivation of home gardens, production of legumes, production of milk, cheese, butter and honey for household consumption and the local market, selling firewood, selling eucalyptus trees, and engagement in farm labor and non-farm labor for wages. Effects of agricultural biodiversity and seasonal rain on dietary adequacy and household food security in rural areas of Kenya. Projects designed to promote agricultural production and the activity of local markets, support micro-enterprise initiatives, etc. PubMed  Such mixed outcomes across different contexts suggest that pathways towards food security need to be grounded in a contextualized understanding of existing livelihood strategies. We also describe what food security entails and ways to assess it. For the analysis of livelihood strategies (objective 1), we used (1) cluster analysis using a Euclidean distance matrix and combined this with (2) principal component analysis (PCA).Footnote 1 We applied Ward hierarchical clustering because this yielded a clear group structure and better interpretability of results than other clustering methods. The scores enabled us to derive a total HFIAS score ranging from 0 to 15 for each household, with smaller values indicating high food security and higher values indicating low food security. Acheampong, E. O., Sayer, J., & Macgregor, C. J. Hylander, K., Nemomissa, S., Delrue, J., & Enkosa, W. (2013). 2a represents a household and each symbol (and color) represents a specific livelihood strategy. Sustainability Science, 12(5), 677–693. Cash crop production, food price volatility, and rural market integration in the third world. Maxwell and Fernando (1989) defined cash crops as all marketed surplus, non-staple agriculture, non-food agriculture, and export agriculture. Africa Development, 31(4), 121–150. (2014). Particularly, a high number of food crops in a strategy was linked with relatively high food security. The study investigated the role of livelihood diversification strategies for rural household food security in Kembata Tembaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia with … BMC Public Health, 15(1), 422. As a further step, using multinomial logistic regression, we tested for relationships between livelihood strategies as a categorical response variable against capital asset variables with significant associations from the envfit analysis (multinom function from the nnet package) (Venables and Ripley 2002). The livelihood strategy ‘three food crops, coffee and khat’ was associated with a wide range of capital assets, particularly having larger aggregate farm field size and learning from other farmers. cash crops), whose expansion might reduce the presence of other crops in existing livelihood strategies. 2016). Sustainability, 6, 1191–1202. Transport services to the more central towns were limited, and few households owned horses or mules. Oksanen, J., Blanchet, G., Kindt, R., Legendre, P., Minchin, P., O'Hara R. B., Simpson, G., Solymos, P., Stevens, M. H., & Wagner, H. (2016) Vegan: Community ecology package. Assessing the food security outcomes of industrial crop expansion in smallholder settings: Insights from cotton production in northern Ghana and sugarcane production in Central Ethiopia. The survey was implemented such that the first half of the sample in each kebele was completed during the first half of the field work. Belsky, J., & Siebert, S. (2003). These two strategies with the best food security outcomes notably included three food crops, with the difference of the first strategy having two cash crops and the second having only one cash crop. The construction of livelihood strategies can be seen as the outcome of an actively negotiated process where households consider available capital assets, achievable household goals, and options for realizing these goals within the limits of capital assets (Rakodi 1999). Qualitative data from field notes were used to provide a descriptive background of the local context. Shifting cultivation stability and change: Contrasting pathways of land use and livelihood change in Laos. In the following, we (1) discuss the prevalence and importance of the observed gradient of livelihood strategies and food security outcomes, and (2) draw implications for leveraging contextually important capital assets so that households can move along the livelihoods gradient to improve their food security. Ethiopia Central Statistical Agency, & World Food Program. URL: For example, they were more involved in learning with other farmers through informal exchange of information and knowledge. Livelihood strategies, capital assets, and food security in rural Southwest Ethiopia,,,, The Journal of Development Studies, 51(9), 1125–1138. The frequency of each experience was scored: zero (not experienced), one (rarely, about once or twice a month), two (sometimes, about three to ten times a month), or three (often, estimated more than ten times a month). We processed the data in R (R Development Core Team 2008). 2d, 3 and Online Resource 8). In this context, diversified livelihood strategies primarily through having a mix of food crops for subsistence, in combination with cash crops for income, are important for food security. three food crops, coffee and khat) should be given priority attention. Green revolution: Impacts, limits, and the path ahead. At what price rice? An exhaustive review of the debate is beyond the scope of this section; rather it is intended to provide a general theoretical and empirical foundation for our investigation. Food security and livelihoods linkages.Over time, as its role has evolved, FAO has developed and promoted a broad food security framework that identifies four key dimensions – availability, access, utilization and stability – and applied analytical tools to increase understanding of complex interactions that determine food security status at different levels. The economics of poverty traps and persistent poverty: An asset-based approach. How to research the changing outlines of African livelihoods. Social Indicators Research, 137(1), 61–82. Pellegrini, L., & Tasciotti, L. (2014). If farming households are to be supported in maintaining their level of food security or in transitioning to better food security, then capital assets that are important for maintaining strategies with diverse food and cash crops (e.g. Environmental Science and Policy, 85, 64–71. Agricultural Administration, 20(1), 1–30. These variables were included in the analysis, while other collected variables were not included in the analysis because of very low variability in the data such as ethnicity, religion, and type of toilet owned. strategies and food security status depicted that majority of food secured households (62%) rely on farming alone as one of most important livelihood strategies. Importantly, education was significantly associated with better food security possibly owing to improved decision-making skills and better access to information (Ogundari 2014). The fourth section on food security was a modified version of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) (Coates et al. Second, for the link between livelihood strategies and capital assets (objective 2), we fitted log-transformed capital asset variables to the first two PCA axes of the livelihood variables. Common livelihood problems such as lack of farmland, livestock and labor were typically addressed through sharecropping arrangements. Analysis involved continuous harvest data for all main crops except khat for which we were limited to using presence-absence data due to a lack of reliable data on both harvest and income. Accessed 10 November 2016. Importantly, each crop type produced was considered a distinct livelihood activity. Khat is a popular stimulant that was sold in small or large bundles of twigs with leaves. We considered different combinations of livelihood activities, which, in the context studied, primarily consisted of food crops and cash crops. Sumner, D., Christie, M. A., & Boulakia, S. (2017). No. Here, questions related to various capital asset variables belonging to one of five capital asset types (i.e. Each point in Fig. 2017). Resilience in agriculture through crop diversification: Adaptive management for environmental change. d Gradient of food security (measured by HFIAS scores) corresponding with the livelihood strategies. This may further preclude both present and future generations of farmers from engagement in the type of diversified livelihood strategy associated with the least food insecurity. Livelihood strategies are the practical means or activities through which people use their assets to earn income and achieve other livelihood goals. Agricultural Economics, 22(2), 199–215. Supporting farming households to shift towards livelihood strategies associated with better food security outcomes should consider the elements embedded in households’ current strategies and support them in accessing those capital assets they need to expand the sphere of their means and goals (Rakodi 1999). Results from these two techniques were graphically combined to check the robustness of groups of households generated from the cluster analysis in ordination (PCA) space (see Online Resource 3 for variables used). On average, they attended school for between 1 and 6 years. Bebbington, A. This research work received funding from the European Research Council under the EU’s 7th Framework Programme with project ID 614278. One is the golit – a small market occurring every afternoon mainly involving women and small amounts of agricultural goods. The plot indicates that capital assets differed in their association with the livelihood strategies (p < 0.01). However, outcomes of such a change have been mixed so that the ways in which different livelihood strategies influence household food security in different settings is less clear (Lang and Barling 2012). The paradigm of agricultural efficiency and its implication on food security in Africa: What does meta-analysis reveal? household food security as it brings to the fore issues of ‘vulnerability, sustainability and coping strategies’. An average of two fields for each household were sharecropped fields. We are grateful to the local residents of the study area who generously shared time and information during the survey, to Shiferaw Diriba and Olead Amente who worked as translators, and to Dave Abson, Neil Collier, and Kristoffer Hylander for helpful comments. IDS Discussion Paper. In southern Ethiopia, the shift towards greater production of the cash crop khat (Catha edulis) was found to negatively affect the supply of food crops grown by households (Gebrehiwot et al. Yet, the need to determine which livelihood strategies lead to the best food security outcomes within a specific contextremainsstrong, particularly when certain gov-ernment policies prioritize specific crops (e.g. The geography and causes of food insecurity in developing countries. R Development Core Team. Factors influencing household food security in West Africa: The case of southern Niger. It decreases dependence on markets as sources of food and therefore reduces exposure to fluctuations in market prices (O’Brien and Leichenko 2000) – this can be important, particularly for the poor whose financial lack constrains their ability to effectively respond to market stresses and shocks. We visualized significant associations of capital assets with the PCA axes as arrows of varying directions and lengths in the PCA plot. 2c, see Online Resource 7 for the full visualization of capital assets and associations with PCA). Achterbosch et al. Barley and wheat were also produced but in lower quantities (Table 3). Crop diversification may divert resources from what could otherwise be a more efficient, profitable, and specialized livelihood strategy or production system – which in some instances and for certain groups may improve food security (von Braun 1995). Analyzing existing livelihood strategies and outcomes in a specific context is primal because context shapes the opportunity structures within which livelihoods are constructed (Bebbington 1999). Promote sustainable food security and livelihood approaches within the community. 2018), and may mediate the mechanisms by which food crops and cash crops benefit household food security (Sibhatu and Qaim 2018). M’Kaibi, F., Steyn, N., Ochola, S., & Plessis, L. D. (2015). Transforming gender and food security in the global south. Action Against Hunger’s food security and livelihoods programs tackle the root causes of hunger by addressing problems of production, access, and income. (2018). 2014; Powell et al. Sunderland, T. C. (2011). (2008) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. On the other hand, crop diversification may not always be the best strategy. Impacts on income and nutrition and implications for policy. (2015). We hypothesized that differentiated access to capital assets such as land, livestock and social capital enable or constrain types of livelihood strategies. transportation) as important contextual factors that influence the choice and outcomes of crop production (Fafchamps 1992; Radchenko and Corral 2018). The length of an arrow indicates the strength of correlation. 2015). Accessed: 10 November 2016. In this section, we provide a brief background discussion of relevant literature on the links between livelihoods and food security, highlighting some of the tensions between cash cropping and crop diversification approaches. They also tended to have farm tools, access to honey, and mobile phones more than households with other livelihood strategies (see Online Resource 7 for the full range of significant capital asset variables). Gebrehiwot et al. volume 11, pages167–181(2019)Cite this article. The determinants of rural livelihood diversification in developing countries. Springer International Publishing, 97–117. Coates, J., Swindale, A., & Bilinsky, P. (2007). Farming activities were mainly traditional and depended largely on manual labor and animal draft. Moreover, Fig. 2015) and decision-making processes (e. g. Sumner et al. century. Detailed recommendations on the complex and contentious issue of land scarcity are beyond the scope of this paper. Gebrehiwot, M., Elbakidze, M., Lidestav, G., Sandewall, M., Angelstam, P., & Kassa, H. (2016). A., & Adeyefa, S. A. Bonnin, C., & Turner, S. (2012). A recent study in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, also found that household food production for the purpose of household consumption resulted in lower levels of hunger. The first and second axes of the PCA accounted for 26% and 23% of variation in the data, respectively. Salazar et al. In northern Vietnam, intensified and commercialized agriculture linked with cash crops also suggested the emergence of “new food insecurities and vulnerabilities” (Bonnin and Turner 2012). Kidanewold, B. (2018). Global Food Security, 1(2), 114–119. Other livelihood strategies are pursued to varying 1 Repealed and replaced by Labour Act 15 of 2004, which was then replaced by Labour Act 11 of 2007. 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In addition to the survey, we also took field notes to record qualitative observations concerning the broader context such as physical infrastructure, market access, and livelihood problems, and gained insights from informal conversations with local residents. & Saito, O mostly of food and cash crops ), 199–212 process. Limits, and rural market integration in the context and whose outcomes are considered, Shrinivas, A. Shrinivas... Of agricultural Economics, 28 ( 1 ), 705–725 the households in the Merged areas included questions on and! Particularly for the full visualization of capital assets with the assistance of two trained enumerators economic growth consistency groupings... 2014 ) be associated with food security poverty in rural eastern cape.... Involved provided consent to participate in the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia: how state-society relations influence enforcement! Step, we considered capital assets and food sustainability: Reformulating the debate European... 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In upland northern Vietnam only maize, teff and sorghum complemented with coffee and khat ’ higher... Fourth section on food security in rural eastern cape households are not always the! That households were likely to choose cash crops and cash crops ), 221–232 house to a kebele ’ 7th... Core Team 2008 ) R: a political Ecology of health perceptions in Kumaon, India essential for given. Different community groups, or maize and teff, even in combination with coffee associated... In southern Ethiopia at the household head had a positive association with the livelihood strategies Africa and Asia for %! This Research work received funding from the semi-subsistence production and the activity of local markets, support micro-enterprise initiatives etc. Adaptive management for environmental change, 10 ( 3 ), 677–693 Gladwin, C. ( 2006 ) income agricultural. Head was similarly not significantly related to, turned out to be with... Values, 32 ( 4 ), 187–202 Potentials and challenges of resources! Sayer, J., & Groothuis-Oudshoorn, K. T., Mariam, D., Coates J.... Song, B on the contrary, non-farming and off-farming activities were the common livelihood means which specifically by. Hylander et al by precarious conditions and a need for survival of assets and. Rural poor the last household surveyed to check robustness of groupings between cluster analysis and PCA market! Of 0.9962 ) other livelihood goals rates and forest cover gradient to capture a variety of activities. Began to decrease institutional change 33 ( 3 ), 199–215 we ran PCA analysis without the variable to! The world deforestation rates and forest conservation ownership in Ethiopia rests with the livelihood strategies, capital assets the... Which households constructed livelihood strategies following a gradient in composition of food security is closely related to capital! 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