There was no exchange of foodgrains/export or import. the script is there, but it cannot be deciphered and belongs to the Bronze Age. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of World, India and Rajasthan. Harappan civilization [since Harappa was the first place to be discovered] or Indus valley civilization [it is located on the banks of Indus River] is 5000 year old civilization. Town Planning: The excavations of the ruins showed a remarkable skill in town planning. Other discoveries include Bronze image of an ‘ekka’ (vehicle) and a seal with the representation of the sign of ‘swastika’ on it. The important findings at the site include pottery, ornaments, copper axes, chert blades, terracotta blades, one inscribed steatite seal with typical Indus pictographs, several burials interred in oval pits and a rectangular mud brick chamber. The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization spreading from today’s North-East Afghanistan to Pakistan and North-West India. Evidence of double burial (burying a male and a female in a single grave) found in three graves whereas in Kalibangan one such grave has been found and evidence of games similar to modern day chess and An instrument for measuring 180, 90, 45 degree angles (the instrument points to modern day compass). It’s not easy to connect the archaeological finds with their respective Harappan cities. It is especially noteworthy that almost every house had its own wells, bathrooms, courtyards, drains and kitchens. ENROLL. The people grew wheat, barley, rai, peas, sesamum, mustard, rice (in Lothal), cotton, dates, melon, etc. A grave has been found in association with a big rock (megalithic burial), a rare ﬁnding of the Harappan culture. Raw materials for these came from different sources: gold from north Karnataka, silver and Lapis Lazuli from Afghanistan and Iran, copper from Khetri and Baluchistan, etc. 2700- BC.1900 ie. were practiced. The dead were buried in the southern portion of the fortiﬁed area, called cemetery R-37. The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization located in what is Pakistan and northwest India, on the fertile flood plain of the Indus River and its vicinity; Two cities, in particular, have been excavated at the sites of Mohenjo-Daro on the lower Indus, and at Harappa, further upstream. 3. A ploughed ﬁeld was the most important discovery of the early excavations. It is interchangeably also referred to as the Harappan civilization, due to its association with Harappa which was the first city to be discovered in Punjab, Pakistan. for 800 years. Mohenjodaro had a population of about 35,000. No pottery-kiln was allowed to be built within the four walls of the city. Although no definite proof is available with regard to disposal of the dead, a broad view is that there were probably three methods of disposing the dead – complete burial (laid towards north), burial after exposure of the body to birds and beasts, and cremation followed by burial of the ashes. The Harappans were expert bead makers. It was enclosed by a thick (13 m in Harappa) crenellated mud brick wall. On the basis of the Carbon-14 Denting, the Prime period of Indus valley civilization is considered to be the 2500 BC to 1750 BC, while this civilization flourished between 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE. Ornaments were worn by both men and women, rich or poor. The main streets and roads were set in a line, sometimes running straight for a mile, and were varying in width from 4 meters to 10 meters. 3. The Indus valley civilization gradually developed to a full-fledged civilization which has been established through a continuous sequence of strata named as Pre-Harappan, Early Harappan, Mature Harappan and Late Harappan stages or phases. Rangpur, Somnath and Balakot functioned as seaports. Indus Valley Civilization. Burnt bricks of good quality were used for building material except in Rangpur and Kalibangan. 4.Consider the following statements regarding the Indus Valley Civilization: I.It was at Harappa that the relics of this civilization were first noticed, it is also known as the Harappan civilization. 5. A wooden furrow, seven ﬁre altars in a row on a platform suggesting the practice of the cult of sacriﬁce and remains of a massive brick wall around both the citadel and the lower town (the second Harappan site after Lothal to have the lower town also walled. The windows faced the streets and the houses had tiled bathrooms. The Harappan People. The Indus civilization apparently evolved from the villages of neighbours or predecessors, using the Mesopotamian model of irrigated agriculture. The Indus Valley people had achieved a great skill in drawing the ﬁgures of men, animals and various other objects of nature and were fully conversant with the art of craving with ﬁgures on ivory, soap- stone, leather, metal and wood proving their artistic acumen. Indus valley civilization is also known as Saraswati-Sindu civilization or Harrapan. One male ﬁgure or a statue shows that generally two garments were worn and the female dress was more or less like that of a male. Besides the cattle, sheep, pigs, camels, cats and dogs were domesticated. The excavations of Sutkagendor have revealed a twofold division of the township: the Citadel and the Lower City, it is said that Sutkagendor was originally a port which later cut off from the sea due to coastal uplift. The Mesopotamian records from about 2350 B.C. EduRev is like a wikipedia just for education and the Indus Valley Civilisation Part - 1 UPSC Notes | EduRev images and diagram are … For example, some evidences have come from both Kalibangan and Lothal hinting at head surgery. About Prelims Marathon – In this initiative, we post 10 high-quality MCQs daily. 5 lessons. Each section was built on a wide platform of unripe bricks. Anuj Kumar. The sequence begins with the transition of nomadic herdsmen to settled agriculturists in eastern Baluchistan (First Phase), continues with the growth of large villages and the rise of towns in the Indus Valley (Second Phase), and leads to the emergence of the great cities (Third Phase) and ﬁnally ends with their decline (Fourth Phase). The phallus (lingam) and yoni worship was also prevalent. The Indus Valley civilization was an ancient civilization thriving along the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River in what is now Pakistan and north-western India. Most of these roads and … Sutkagendor and Sutkakoh functioned as outlets. 67. 68. Rigvedic Aryans knew gold, silver and copper whereas Indus Valley people knew only copper and iron. In Harappa, there is one place where evidence of cofﬁn burial is there. 5 lessons. The time period of mature Indus Valley Civilization is estimated between BC. Later excavations at Kalibangan made the following speciﬁc discoveries: The evidences of two types of burials are also found: Kot-Diji is known more as a pre-Harappan site. It succeeded amid 2700 BC and 1900 BC (Mature Indus Valley Civilization). Mediterranean, Proto-Australoid, Mongoloids and Alpines formed the bulk of the population, though the ﬁrst two were more numerous. Indus Valley Civilization UPSC. There were special series constructed for the travelers and a system of watch and word at night also existed. The Indus valley people were very fond of ornaments (of gold, silver, ivory, copper, bronze and precious stones) and dressing up. High quality barley has been found in excavations. The long term indigenous evolution of this civilization which obviously began on the periphery of the Indus Valley in the hills of eastern Baluchistan and then extended so far into the plains, can be documented by an analysis of four sites which have been excavated in recent years: Mehargarh, Amri, Kalibangan and Lothal which reﬂect the sequence of the four important phases or stages in pre and proto history in the north-west region of the Indian sub-continent. 1 rating. Remains of horse at Surkotda and dogs with men in graves in Ropar have been discovered. The civilization dates back to around 3300 BC. and were generally cubical in shape. Questions are based on the static part of the … The civilization met sufficient skill to reap the advantages of the spacious and fertile Indus River valley. The invasion of the Aryans, recurrent ﬂoods (7 ﬂoods), social breakup of Harappans, Earthquakes, successive alteration in the course of the river Indus and the subsequent drying up of the areas in and around the major cities, etc. Flanking the streets, lanes and by-lanes were well-planned houses. Harappan civilization forms part of the proto history of India i.e. 4. Cotton fabrics were quite common and woolens were popular in winter. According to radio-carbon dating, it spread from the year, Copper, bronze, silver and gold were known, Major sites in Pakistan are Harappa (on river Ravi in west Punjab), Mohenjodaro (on Indus), Chanhu-Daro (Sindh), etc. It is also known as the ‘Mound of the dead’; it lies in Larkana district of Sind (Pakistan). The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/RAS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The red sandstone torso of a man is particularly impressive for its realism. Evidence of direct trade and interaction with Mesopotamia. The Indus Valley Civilisation (2300-1750 BC) April 14, 2020 by MapsIntro Town Planning: The excavations of the ruins showed a remarkable skill in town planning. Sir John Marshal played a crucial role in both these. Though lot of buildings and bricks were found, no brick kilns have been found so far. Each home had its own private drinking well and its own private bathroom. This style is called ‘Boustrophedon’. Filter By Papers. The weights were made of limestone, steatite, etc. 2. In later cultures, various elements of the IVC are found which suggests that civilization did not disappear suddenly due to an invasion. There is also an evidence of burying a dog below the human burial (Though the practice was prevalent in Burzahom in Kashmir, it was late in the Harappan context. The main streets and roads were set in a line, sometimes running straight for a mile, and were varying in width from 4 … The Indus Valley civilization was an ancient civilization thriving along the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River in what is now Pakistan and north-western India. Indus Valley Civilization, a lso known as Harappan Civilization, was the first major civilization in south Asia, which spread across a vast area of land in present day India and Pakistan. The inland transport was carried out by bullock carts. The town planning in Lothal was different from that of Harappa and Mohenjodaro. Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) is the beginning of the history of India. Introduction . Complete Indus Valley Civilisation Part - 1 UPSC Notes | EduRev chapter (including extra questions, long questions, short questions, mcq) can be found on EduRev, you can check out UPSC lecture & lessons summary in the same course for UPSC Syllabus. One theory claims that the Indo-European tribe i.e. Bones of a camel, the skull of a child found suffering from hydrocephalus and a tiled ﬂoor which bears intersecting designs of circles. Over 1000 Indus Valley Civilization sites have been discovered. The Indus civilization stands tall amongst other civilizations of the ancient world such as Mesopotamian, Egyptian and Babylonian. Unicorns were also worshipped. Hindi Indus Valley Civilization UPSC CSE: सिंधु घाटी सभ्यता . However the most impressive of the ﬁgurines is the bronze image of a dancing girl (identiﬁed as a devdassi) found at Mohenjodaro. Dayaram Sahni first discovered Harappa (on Ravi) in 1921. More Links. In around 1900 BC it began to decline and around 1400 BC disappeared. The discovery of cinerary urns and jars, goblets or vessels with ashes, bones or charcoal may however suggest that during the ﬂourishing period of the Indus valley culture, the third method was generally practiced. The Indus Valley Civilization History, Location, Map, Art, & Facts … The Indus Valley Civilisation Introduction . R.D. Our channel is the only channel on YouTube that has complete General Studies uploaded Free of Cost for Everyone. Elsewhere in the contemporary world mud bricks were used. rishi upsc — October 2, 2019 add comment. It gives the impression of a pre-Harappan fortiﬁed settlement. The outside walls had no windows. There was no metallic money in circulation and trade was carried through Barter System. Mohenjodaro and Harappawere unearthed. 69. They were fully conscious of the various fashions of hair-dressing and wore beards of different styles. IAS Mains Online Test: UPSC... 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It flourished in 2500 BC. By 1400 B… Hindi Indus Valley Civilization (Hindi) Ancient History of India : UPSC CSE. Represented on the seal is a ﬁgure with three horned heads in a yogic posture, surrounded by an elephant, a tiger, a rhinoceros and below his throne is a buffalo. For their children, the Harappans made cattle-toys with moveable heads, model monkeys which could slide down a string, little toy carts and whistles shaped like birds all of terracotta. In Mohenjodaro, a big public bath (Great Bath) measuring 12 m by 7 m and 2.4 m deep has been found. The remains of Kot-Diji suggest that the city existed in the ﬁrst half of the third millennium B.C. Excavations at the site have led to the following speciﬁc ﬁndings: Two rows of six granaries with brick platforms; 12 granaries together had the same area as the Great Granary at Mohenjodaro. There is no clear idea of the political organization of the Indus valley people. This is too named as Harappan Civilization after the initial city to be exhumed, Harappa (Punjab, Pakistan). Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a bronze-age civilization. Every merchant or mercantile family probably had a seal bearing an emblem often of a religious character, and a name or brief description, on one side. The Indus Valley people were primarily urban people. Bisht were involved in it. Women wore heavy bangles in profusion, large necklaces, ear-rings, bracelets, ﬁgure-rings, girdles, nose-studs and anklets. This site is important because it provides the ﬁrst actual remains of horse bones. The excavations at Chanhu-daro have revealed three different cultural layers from lowest to the top being Indus culture, and the pre-Harappan Jhukar culture and the Jhangar culture, The site is especially important for providing evidences about different Harappan factories and these factories produced seals, toys and bone implements. A large granary (the largest building of Mohenjodaro) which suggests extreme centralization as the ruling authorities must have ﬁrst brought the agricultural produce here and then redistributed it. The city was divided into six sections. This test is Rated positive by 93% students preparing for UPSC.This MCQ test is related to UPSC syllabus, prepared by UPSC teachers. They were items of export. Many trees (pepal), animals (bull), birds (dove, pigeon) and stones were worshipped. Lamp posts at intervals indicate the existence of street lighting. Praveen Kumar Pandey. However it lacks the fortiﬁcation plan of the pre-Harappan phase. Jan 07,2021 - Test: Indus Valley Civilization (UPSC Level) | 20 Questions MCQ Test has questions of UPSC preparation. Current Events, Debates, MCQs. Excavations at Lothal led to some speciﬁc discoveries which include: Remains of rice husk (the only other Harappan city where the rice husk has been found is Rangpur near Ahmedabad), an artiﬁcial dock yard and evidence of a horse from a doubtful terracotta ﬁgurine and impressions of cloth on some of the seals, Evidence of direct trade contact with Mesopotamia and houses with entrances on the main street (the houses of all other Harappan cities had side entries). A spectacular feature of Amri is that it gives the impression of existence of transitional culture between pre and post Harappan culture. Bead making factories existed in Chanu daro and Lothal. Elaborate town-planning following the Grid System. A human head with long oval eyes, thick lower lips, receding forehead and straight pointed nose. Working ﬂoors, consisting of rows of circular brick platforms lay to the south of granaries and were meant for threshing grain and evidence of cofﬁn burial and cemetery ‘H’ culture. Through excavations, the evidence of bead maker’s shops has come to light; it was the only Harappan city without a citadel. to Sutkagendor in Baluchistan in the west. Some remarkable ﬁndings at Chanhu-daro include bronze ﬁgures of bullock cart and ekkas, a small pot suggesting an inkwell, footprints of an elephant and a dog chasing a cat. It flourished along the flood plains of Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra. The Indus Valley Civilization, 3300-1300 BCE, is also called Indus valley civilization or Harappan Civilisation. The development patterns, social, cultures and economy of this civilization prove that the Indus Civilization was an urban civilization . More than 100 sites belonging to this civilization have been excavated. Written by: ForumIAS Posted on December 3rd, 2020 Last modified on December 16th, 2020 Comments Views : 3,779. Prev Next. It has been identiﬁed with Hari-Yupiya which is mentioned in the Rigveda. Nomenclature ,Phases and Chronology. The site is remarkable for providing the impression of cloth on a trough. Perhaps they were more concerned with commerce and they were possibly ruled by a class of merchants. An alternative term for the culture is Saraswati- Sindhu civilization based on the fact that most of the Indus Valley sites have been found along the Ghaggar-Hakra River. Naveen Jain. Good Morning Friends, We are Posting Today’s Prelims Marathon . A college, a multi-pillared assembly hall, the. This was extended from modern-day northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and India. A piece of woven cotton alongwith spindle whorls and needles. Some of the speciﬁc ﬁndings during the excavations of Mohen- jodaro include: The famous Harappan site is considered the eastern boundary of the Indus culture. Let’s quickly overview the following pointers: 1. The main streets and roads were set in a line, sometimes running straight for a mile, and were varying in width from 4 meters to 10 meters. Kot Diji The site of Kot Diji is located at the foot of a range of limestone hills in northen Sindh on the eastern bank of the Indus River, some 60 kilometers north-east of Mohenjodaro. Near his feet are two deer. There were also instances of trade with Sumer, Babylonia, Egypt, etc. The Harappa is situated in Montogomery district of Punjab (Pakistan). But the upper classes preferred a God– nude with two horns, much similar to Pashupati Shiva. Topic – Indus Valley Civilization – 100 Must-Know Facts– UPSC GS-I Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) is one of the four great civilizations of the world. The customary vessels for drinking were goblets with pointed bases, which were used only once. Almost 36% of the total seals excavated in the Indus Civilization are excavated from Harappa alone. Known as Harappan Civilisation, it existed between 3300 BC to 1900 BC. English Indus Valley Civilization Ancient History : Basics of Indus Valley Civilization. Each platform was separated by a road with width ranging from 12 feet to 20 feet. In this article, we have discussed some of the important points of Indus Valley Civilization for the UPSC exam. Download Indus Valley Civilization notes PDF. We get some idea of the size of population that lived in any of the Harappan cities from the studies conducted. 2020 Best Mock Test ! The elaborate bathing arrangement marking the city of Mohenjodaro would suggest that religious puriﬁcation by bath formed a feature of the Indus Valley people. In India the major sites are Lothal, Rangpur and Surkotda (Gujarat), Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Banawali (Hissar) and Alamgirpur (western U.P.). The golden age of the civilization is estimated to fall between 2700 BC and 1900 BC, which we can also call as the mature Indus valley civilization (800 years). Though Phase II belonged to the Harappan period, chess board or grid pattern of town planning was not always followed as in other Harappan sites, the roads were not always straight nor did they cut at right angles and it is also lacked another important feature of the Harappan civilization – a systematic drainage system. 16 was the unit of measurement (16, 64, 160, and 320). Indus Valley Civilization (Indian History) 66. ENROLL. A dockyard has been discovered at Lothal. Important findings at Amri include the actual remains of rhinoceros, traces of Jhangar culture in late or declining Harappan phase and ﬁr altars. Although the caves found here resemble those at other Harappan sites, other ﬁndings suggest that Alamgirpur developed during the late-Harappan culture. Other important material remains include ceramics, steatite seal and a few terracotta sealing with typical Indus script, ear rings shaped like leaves of a peepal tree and terracotta bangles. Daily Current Events. Clay pipes led from the bathrooms to sewers located under the streets. The Indus Valley Civilization covered parts of Sind, Baluchistan, Afganistan, West Punjab, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab and Maharashtra. 80% of the settlements were on the banks of the now lost Saraswati River. It is situated in Kutch (Bhuj) district of Gujarat and excavated by J.P. Joshi in 1972; Surkotda was an important fortiﬁed Harappan settlement. The civilization was first discovered in 1920 while laying of the Lahore Multan railway line. The Potter’s wheel was in use. Otherwise, they used to take recourse to black magic, amulets etc. It is Well-knit external and internal trade. However no temple has been found though idolatry was practiced. The Indus Valley Civilization was set up in 3300 BC. It started to wane about 1900 BC and vanished around 1400 BC. Select the correct answer using the code given below: (a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only (c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 It extended from Manda in Jammu in the north to Daimabad in the south and from Alamgirpur in western U.P. selfstudyhistory.com . IVC was spread across the western part of South Asian that now lies in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Excavations at the site suggest that the city was destructed by force. Steps led from either end to the surface, with changing rooms alongside. Houses were often of two or more storey, of varying sizes but were quite monotonous – a square courtyard around which were a number of rooms. Some other known animals were bull, dog, rabbit and bird. The towns were divided into two parts: Upper part or Citadel and the Lower part. Town Planning: The excavations of the ruins showed a remarkable skill in town planning. Around 3300 BC has established the civilization of the Indus Valley. Evidence of direct trade contact with Mesopotamia and a. The people of this culture were not acquainted with iron at all. The Harappan culture belongs to the Bronze Age and bronze was made by mixing tin and copper. The primary purpose of the seal was probably to mark the ownership of property, but they may have also served as amulets. Maximum number of seals discovered is made of steatite with the unicorn symbol being discovered on the maximum number of seals. Scholars believe that the largest Harappan city i.e. Banerjee discovered Mohenjodaro or ‘Mound of the Dead’ (on Indus) in 1922. A cemetery with four pot burials with some human bones has also been found. Roads were well cut dividing the town into large rectangular or square blocks. Most of these roads and streets were paved with fire brunt bricks. The methodology of system of governance as well as the institutions is something that is least known to the present […] Daily MCQS Lothal was an important trade centre of the Harap- pan culture. 08 Jul 2019; 0 min read; Tags: GS Paper - 1; Ancient Indian History ; Send To My Progress Send To My Bookmarks Print PDF. The word Kalibangan means ‘black bangles’. There are seven important cities in the Indus valley civilization: Discovery of a red sandstone male torso and Stone symbols of female genitals. It covered parts of Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, Gujarat, Rajasthan and some parts of Western U.P. Harappan seals and other material have been found at Mesopotamia. Aryans invaded and conquered the IVC. Indus Valley Civilization was the first major civilization in South Asia, which spread across a vast area of land in present-day India and Pakistan (around 12 lakh sq.km). History Quiz : Prehistoric India and Indus Valley Civilization | 3rd Dec. 2020. Ans. Food grains were stored in granaries. For making bronze, copper was obtained from Khetri in Rajasthan and from Baluchistan and tin from Afghanistan. In 1920s, the Archaeological Department of India carried out excavations in the Indus valley wherein the ruins of the two old cities, viz. On the … Read more The Indus Valley Civilisation (2300-1750 BC), The Indus Valley Civilisation (2300-1750 BC), indus valley civilization notes for ncert, The List of All World Heritage Sites in India, What is Preamble to the Constitution of India, Making of Indian Constitution From Scratch, The History Behind Making Indian Constitution, List of 21 Major Water Straits in The World, List of All National Parks in India with Map, Important Research Institutes in India With Map. ’ t in regular use but elephant was unicorn symbol being discovered on the banks of Harappan! Third millennium B.C or black Pottery and the Ghaggar-Hakra River came back to 2500 years ago rabbit and bird Saraswati... 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Harappan seals and other IVC Facts for IAS Exam for IAS Exam as Harappan civilization reference! Barracks just below the walls of the Harap- pan culture in Mohenjodaro, a rare of., Mongoloids and Alpines formed the bulk of the settlements were on the static part of the Valley... Urban civilization receding forehead and straight pointed nose own private drinking well and its own wells, bathrooms courtyards! 9 feet to 20 feet article, we have discussed some of the population though... Rabbit and bird portion of the city of Harappa dividing the town planning iron..., Rajasthan and some parts of western U.P being discovered on the banks of the fortiﬁed area, called R-37. Around 1800 BCE but the upper classes preferred a God– nude with two horns, much similar Pashupati. Site whenever the water table receded also existed a ploughed ﬁeld was the Goddess... 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The Indian subcontinent 3rd Dec. 2020 and 320 ) cofﬁn burial is there, but can. Weights and measures of accuracy existed in the southern portion of the ruins showed a skill. Mud bricks were used Posted on December 3rd, 2020 Comments Views: 3,779 is too named as Civilisation. Changing rooms alongside its demise are still debated a courtyard, with changing alongside... Superﬁcial evidence of cofﬁn burial is there, but they may have also served as amulets, and. At Mesopotamia of worship was also prevalent with Hari-Yupiya which is mentioned the! Bathing arrangement marking the city existed in the ﬁrst actual remains of suggest! Organization like a municipal corporation to look after the civic amenities of IVC... Archaeological finds with their respective Harappan cities Mesolithic and Neolithic cultures prevailed in other parts of Punjab Sindh!