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20 Jan 2021

The Baroque style, which encompassed music, art, and architecture, was particularly encouraged by the post-Reformation Catholic Church as such forms offered a means of religious expression that was stirring and emotional, intended to stimulate religious fervor.[99]. It traces its roots to prehistoric bull worship and sacrifice and is often linked to Rome, where many human-versus-animal events were held. The Church in fact built Western civilization. The West went through a series of great cultural and social changes between 1945 and 1980. The Industrial Revolution that began in Britain in the 18th Century brought increased leisure time, leading to more time for citizens to attend and follow spectator sports, greater participation in athletic activities, and increased accessibility. [47] Hellenistic science, philosophy, architecture, literature and art later provided a foundation embraced and built upon by the Roman Empire as it swept up Europe and the Mediterranean world, including the Hellenistic world in its conquests in the 1st century BCE. The polka, the square dance, the flamenco, and the Irish step dance are very well known Western forms of folk dance. The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. [50] The rise of Christianity reshaped much of the Greco-Roman tradition and culture; the Christianised culture would be the basis for the development of Western civilization after the fall of Rome (which resulted from increasing pressure from barbarians outside Roman culture). The study of canon law, the legal system of the Catholic Church, fused with that of Roman law to form the basis of the refounding of Western legal scholarship. [124][125][126][127][128][129][130][131] The pencil, ballpoint pen, Cathode ray tube, liquid-crystal display, light-emitting diode, camera, photocopier, laser printer, ink jet printer, plasma display screen and world wide web were also invented in the West. The music video was also developed in the West in the middle of the 20th century. Citizens of Muslim countries may be more vulnerable to their … The Church founded many cathedrals, universities, monasteries and seminaries, some of which continue to exist today. As religion became less important, and Europeans came into increasing contact with far away peoples, the old concept of Western culture began a slow evolution towards what it is today. [b] The term Middle East in the mid-19th century included the territory east of the Ottoman Empire, but West of China—Greater Persia and Greater India—is now used synonymously with "Near East" in most languages. Comple ... the Western culture and European mode of civilization began to thrive and outgrow African cultural heritage. [146][147], Westerners are also known for their explorations of the globe and outer space. [35][page needed] Rational thinking developed through a long age of change and formation, with the experiments of the Enlightenment and breakthroughs in the sciences. Tendencies that have come to define modern Western societies include the concept of political pluralism, individualism, prominent subcultures or countercultures (such as New Age movements) and increasing cultural syncretism resulting from globalization and human migration. Western culture has as its foundation the ideas and values derived from ancient Greek philosophy, Roman law, and Christianity. Bullfighting spread from Spain to its American colonies, and in the 19th century to France, where it developed into a distinctive form in its own right. If they are angry, they might express. Western cultureis an incredibly broad term used to describe the social norms, belief systems, traditions, customs, values, and so forth that have their origin in Europe or are based on European culture. Scholars have proposed a wide variety of theories to explain why the Great Divergence happened, including lack of government intervention, geography, colonialism, and customary traditions. However, in the past it was also the Eastern Roman Empire that had many features now seen as "Western," preserving Roman law, which was first codified by Justinian in the east,[38] as well as the traditions of scholarship around Plato, Aristotle, and Euclid that were later introduced to Italy during the Renaissance by Greek scholars fleeing the fall of Constantinople. [61][63] Movements in art and philosophy, such as the Humanist movement of the Renaissance and the Scholastic movement of the High Middle Ages, were motivated by a drive to connect Catholicism with Greek and Arab thought imported by Christian pilgrims. There is some disagreement about what nations should or should not be included in the category and at what times. [115], The West is credited with the development of the steam engine and adapting its use into factories, and for the generation of electric power. [132][133][134][135][136], Ubiquitous materials including aluminum, clear glass, synthetic rubber, synthetic diamond and the plastics polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride and polystyrene were discovered and developed or invented in the West. The Greek classics along with Arabic science, philosophy and technology were transmitted to Western Europe and translated into Latin, sparking the Renaissance of the 12th century and 13th century. It has been disputed by some philosophers whether Western culture can be considered a historically sound, unified body of thought. Since classical antiquity, sport has been an important facet of Western cultural expression. Looking for definition of Western culture? The West as a geographical area is unclear and undefined. Following the Roman conquest of the Hellenistic world, the concept of a "West" arose, as there was a cultural divide between the Greek East and Latin West. By extension, those countries where Western Europe established its hegemony and inherited its languages, socio-political system of organization, religion are considered part of Western culture or Westernized countries , law system, educational model, values ​​and customs. [137][138][139][140][141][142][143] In biology, evolution, chromosomes, DNA, genetics and the methods of molecular biology are creations of the West. Restoration of a fresco from an Ancient Roman villa bedroom, circa 50-40 BC, dimensions of the room: 265.4 x 334 x 583.9 cm, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City), Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, circa 1503–1506, perhaps continuing until circa 1517, oil on poplar panel, 77 cm × 53 cm, Louvre, (Paris), Las Meninas, by Diego Velázquez, 1656, oil on canvas, 318 cm × 276 cm, El Prado (Madrid), Dance at Le moulin de la Galette, by Pierre-Auguste Renoir, 1876, oil on canvas, height: 131 cm, Musée d'Orsay (Paris), Photo of the interior of the apartment of Eugène Atget, taken in 1910 in Paris. For example, topics such as the birth of a child and sex are still taboo in some eastern countries.People in the west are also more open about their feelings. "The Coherence of the Arabic-Latin Translation Program in Toledo in the Twelfth Century,". [97] Some cultural and artistic modalities are characteristically Western in origin and form. Ancient Greece is considered the birthplace of many elements of Western culture, including the development of a democratic system of government and major advances in philosophy, science and mathematics. Its widely used language is English. Upon learning about enlightened views, some rulers met with intellectuals and tried to apply their reforms, such as allowing for toleration, or accepting multiple religions, in what became known as enlightened absolutism. More often the ideology of a state's inhabitants is what will be used to categorize it as a Western society. European art pays deep tribute to human suffering.[97]. A number of popular modern sports were devised or codified in Britain during the 19th Century and obtained global prominence—these include ping pong, modern tennis, association football, netball and rugby. The Romans built immense structures such as the amphitheatres to house their festivals of sport. After the fall of Rome, much of Greco-Roman art, literature, science and even technology were all but lost in the western part of the old empire. Today, the influences of Wester… Indeed, western culture is a societal matter that only affects the living conditions of the people in the region. The cultural distance between the West and Islam is narrower than Westerners think. In turn, most European instruments have roots in earlier Eastern instruments that were adopted from the medieval Islamic world. Much of this set of traditions is collected in the Western canon. The predecessor of the skyscraper can be found in the medieval towers erected in Bologna. Iron and steel ships, bridges and skyscrapers first appeared in the West. Realistic portraiture is especially valued. In contemporary usage, the Western World refers to Europe and other areas whose population originated from Europe. Volleyball was created in Holyoke, Massachusetts, a city directly north of Springfield, in 1895. Univ of Wisconsin Press, 1989. See more. There are essentially no taboos against depicting a god, or other religious figures, in a representational fashion. In the Roman world, one could speak of three main directions: North (Celtic tribal states and Parthians), the East (lux ex oriente), and finally the South (Quid novi ex Africa? Football(also known as soccer) remains hugely popular in Europe, but has grown from its origins to be known as the world game. But people i… western-culture | definition: relating to or characteristic of the western parts of the world or the West as opposed to the eastern or oriental parts | synonyms: occidental, Hesperian, Occident, West| antonyms: eastern, eastern United States, southeastern, middle Atlantic, east-central Many parts of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empireare considered Western today but were considered Eastern in the past. However, per another survey by Pew Research Center from 2011, Christianity remains the dominant religion in the Western world where 70–84% are Christians,[96] According to this survey, 76% of Europeans described themselves as Christians,[96][169][170] and about 86% of the Americas population identified themselves as Christians,[171] (90% in Latin America and 77% in North America). Stereotypical views of "the West" have been labeled Occidentalism, paralleling Orientalism—the term for the 19th-century stereotyped views of "the East". Define Western culture by Webster's Dictionary, WordNet Lexical Database, Dictionary of Computing, Legal Dictionary, Medical Dictionary, Dream Dictionary. The discoveries and inventions by Westerners in electromagnetism include Coulomb's law (1785), the first battery (1800), the unity of electricity and magnetism (1820), Biot–Savart law (1820), Ohm's Law (1827), and Maxwell's equations (1871). Western culture is a term that refers to the heritage of ethical values, traditions, customs, belief systems, technologies, and artefacts that define the lifestyles and beliefs of people from the Western part of the world. Western civilization, western culture or the West is made up of European culturally derived societies (most notably in the Classical Roman heritage,Western Christianity (Catholicism and Protestantism), Democracy and Liberalism).This at least includes Western and Central Europe, English speaking North America, Australia and New Zealand.The identities of places such as … [113] The percentage of ethnically European Nobel prize winners during the first and second halves of the 20th century were respectively 98 and 94 percent. The Olympic Games revived many of the sports of Classical Antiquity—such as Greco-Roman wrestling, discus and javelin. [97] Tragedy, from its ritually and mythologically inspired Greek origins to modern forms where struggle and downfall are often rooted in psychological or social, rather than mythical, motives, is also widely considered a specifically European creation and can be seen as a forerunner of some aspects of both the novel and of classical opera. Christianity, including the Roman Catholic Church,[7][8][9] Protestantism[10][11] the Eastern Orthodox Church, and Oriental Orthodoxy,[12][13] has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization since at least the 4th century,[14][15][16][17][18] as did Judaism. When people talk about Western culture, what exactly are they referring to? ", "There Is No Such Thing As Western Civilization", "A Philosophical and Historical Analysis of Modern Democracy, Equality, and Freedom Under the Influence of Christianity", "Rehabilitating the Industrial Revolution", "Review of The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain (edited by Roderick Floud and Paul Johnson), Times Higher Education Supplement, 15 January 2004", http://www.canterbury.ac.nz/graduation/grad-history.shtml, "IPTO – Information Processing Techniques Office", https://books.google.com/books?id=FAHk65slfY4C&pg=PA16, An enormous theorem: the classification of finite simple groups, "Five Hundred Years of Bookkeeping: A Portrait of Luca Pacioli", "The End of an Asteroidal Adventure: NEAR Shoemaker Phones Home for the Last Time", "15-149 NASA's Three-Billion-Mile Journey to Pluto Reaches Historic Encounter", Catholicisme et protestantisme en France: Analyses sociologiques et données de l'Institut CSA pour La Croix, "International Religious Freedom Report 2007", The Rise of Western Power: A Comparative History of Western Civilization, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Western_culture&oldid=1000886235, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from February 2015, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Articles needing additional references from November 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2017, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Greco-Roman classic letters, arts, architecture, philosophical and cultural tradition, which include the influence of preeminent authors and philosophers such as, More pronounced use and application of innovation and scientific developments, as well as a more rational approach to scientific progress (what has been known as the, This page was last edited on 17 January 2021, at 06:10. The University as a European Institution", in: harvnb error: no target: CITEREFVerger1999 (. This organic unity of Western culture is so strong that even the modern developments of extreme nationalism have been incapable of creating any real cultural and spiritual autarky. During the Reformation and Enlightenment, the ideas of civil rights, equality before the law, procedural justice, and democracy as the ideal form of society began to be institutionalized as principles forming the basis of modern Western culture, particularly in Protestant regions. Eyeglasses, the telescope, the microscope and electron microscope, all the varieties of chromatography, protein and DNA sequencing, computerised tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance, x-rays, and light, ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy, were all first developed and applied in Western laboratories, hospitals and factories. [96], According to new polls about religiosity in the European Union in 2012 by Eurobarometer, Christianity is the largest religion in the European Union, accounting for 72% of the EU population. Western culture isn't confined to one particular race. The term also applies beyond Europe to countries and cultures whose histories are strongly connected to Europe by immigration, colonization, or influence. [70] influenced society by publishing widely read works. [42] Appiah argues that the origin of the Western and European identity can be traced back to the Muslim invasion of Iberia where Christians would form a common Christian or European identity. In a broader sense, the Middle Ages, with its fertile encounter between Greek philosophical reasoning and Levantine monotheism was not confined to the West but also stretched into the old East. Europe fell into political anarchy, with many warring kingdoms and principalities. Western World mainly refers to Europe and North America. Under the Frankish kings, it eventually, and partially, reunified, and the anarchy evolved into feudalism. Geanakoplos, Deno John. The Greek and Roman paganism had been completely replaced by Christianity around the 4th and 5th centuries, since it became the official State religion following the baptism of the emperor Constantine I. So were the stethoscope, the electrocardiograph, and the endoscope. Australian Rules Football, an Australian variation of football with similarities to Gaelic football and rugby evolved in the British colony of Victoria in the mid-19th century. The concept of Western culture is generally linked to the classical definition of the Western world. University professor, singer, Bachelor of Arts (Mention Cultural Promotion), with a Masters in Comparative Literature from the Central University of Venezuela, and PhD in History at the Autonomous University of Lisbon. The double-blind study and evidence-based medicine are critical scientific techniques widely used in the West for medical purposes. The philosophy and science of Classical Greece were largely forgotten in Europe after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, other than in isolated monastic enclaves (notably in Ireland, which had become Christian but was never conquered by Rome). Western culture is most strongly influenced by the Greco-Roman and Christian cultures.[1]. Jousting and hunting were popular sports in the European Middle Ages, and the aristocratic classes developed passions for leisure activities. [64][65][66] However, due to the division in Western Christianity caused by the Protestant Reformation and the Enlightenment, religious influence—especially the temporal power of the Pope—began to wane.[67][68]. Philosophers of the Enlightenment included Francis Bacon, René Descartes, John Locke, Baruch Spinoza, Voltaire (1694–1778), David Hume, and Immanuel Kant. However, in the past it was also the Eastern Roman Empire that had many fe… Likewise, Wicca, New Age spirituality and other neo-pagan belief systems enjoy notable minority support in Western states. The Scots Colleges Abroad: 1575 to 1799 (Brill, Leiden, 2012) p. 115, Ralph Stein (1967). [3][4][5] This period overlapped with and was followed by Rome, which made key contributions in law, government, engineering and political organization. The most striking part of a culture is different dance forms that the culture holds. [citation needed], In mathematics, calculus, statistics, logic, vectors, tensors and complex analysis, group theory and topology were developed by Westerners. 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