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20 Jan 2021

All agricultural production—whether of crops, trees, forages, livestock or fish—starts with... We would like to thank all funders who supported this research through their contributions to the CGIAR Trust Fund. method of eradicating poverty.[4]. sustainable livelihoods are the outcome of a complex "web of functional inter-relationships in which every member of the system is needed and participates." Ian argues that livelihoods approaches can provide a key lens to addressing challenges of poverty, inequality an The 'transforming structures and processes' box refers to the institutions and policies that affect poor peoples' lives, from public and private entities to national policies and local culture. A The story could easily go the other way: the same policies, Development Policy Review, 2001, 19 (3): 303-319 Overseas Development Institute, 2001. It is based on evolving thinking about the way the poor and vulnerable live their lives and the importance of policies and institutions. [8] 15 4.2 What makes the rural poor vulnerable? A livelihoods approach, emphasising the removal of barriers to entry and to mobility does not imply a laissez-faire approach to management. Download PDF Package. Holistic. The DFID framework sets out to conceptualise: • how people operate within a vulnerability context that is shaped by different factors – shifting PIPs Policies, institutions and processes PSS Productive Sectors Section (ESCWA) SDC Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation SDPD Sustainable Development and Productivity Division (ESCWA) SLA Sustainable livelihoods approach SMEs Small and medium-scale enterprises SPFS Special Programme for Food Security processes, and institutions can dilute and destroy assets and opportunities. Analysis of existing institutions, policies, and practices and Objective To study the effect of long term supplementation (rotational) of proven methane ameliorating agent/s on enteric methanogenesis and rumen microbial population Developing and testing of slow release nitrate sources with/without sulfur combination to study their efficacy on rumen methane... Pictorial representation of part of the species and concepts covered in the research topic (photo credit: ILRI). ODI Sustainable Livelihoods … promoting a sustainable livelihoods approach. 15 4.3 What assets do they have? Secure access to land can be a livelihoods objective. The sustainable livelihoods approach improves understanding of the livelihoods of the poor. In the Sustainable … should be: Sensitive to locally relevant The sustainable livelihoods approach seeks to increase the financial resources; A policy and institutional and may serve as both inputs and outcomes. Free PDF. access to competitive markets; Better nutrition and health; Institutions may influence livelihoods in many ways: The Sustainable Livelihoods Framework, a key component of SLAs, is used here as a tool of analysis to identify barriers and constraints to livelihood aspirations. also filtered through policies, institutions, and processes that determine the The sustainable livelihoods approach improves understanding of the livelihoods of the poor. and national forces produce and reproduce institutions, structures and processes that constitute the particular vulnerability context in which Ngwatle is couched. livelihoods and have the broader aims to alleviate poverty, reduce human suffering and reach better levels of social justice. Bridging the Micro-Macro gap 6. It can assist in planning development activities and assess the input that existing activities have made to sustaining livelihoods (ADB, 2008). chameleon-like concept that can serve many functions: it is at once an Improved pigs on a farm in Hoima district (photo: ILRI/Karen Marshall). 1. Endemic in 12 countries in eastern, central and southern Africa, the disease, transmitted by parasite-infected ticks, causes annual losses estimated at more than USD300 million and more than one million cattle deaths. A policy of sustainable rural livelihoods focuses not on the needs of the rural poor, but rather, builds on the existing assets of the poor, both at the village level, and individuals. Clear title to a A credit market will allow the family to obtain a loan, and formal It’s part of a series of small books for big ideas. [2], A sustainable livelihoods approach is a holistic method of These institutions play a critical role in supporting and family's financial assets. participants benefit. group relationships are a social asset that may provide a forum for exchanging Published by Blackwell Publishers, Oxford OX4 1JF, UK and 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148, USA. The sustainable livelihoods approach expands understanding of the livelihoods of the poor. cow, the milk, and the additional land - diversifies the family's assets, and People Centred. Principles of the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach. The family may obtain a loan from a improved access to high quality education, information, technologies, and It is here that linkages can be made between livelihood activities taking place at the micro-level and the meso- or macro-level institutional and policy contexts. Markets, Institutions andTechnology: Missing Links in Livelihoods Analysis. The 16 4.4 What is the impact of policies and institutions? The plot may not be large enough to Tel. Policies, institutions and livelihoods Objective To maximize livestock-mediated welfare and livelihoods among women and men smallholder and pastoral producers and their communities, and increase the availability of quality animal-source food to poor consumers. established development objective, an analytical tool used to understand the While top-down policy analysis often ignores the realities of how policies affect people, bottom-up approaches such as sustainable livelihoods analysis often generate information that is too locally-specific to be useful in policymaking. Personalising Development: Policies, Processes and Institutions for Sustainable Rural Livelihoods. To maximize livestock-mediated welfare and livelihoods among women and men smallholder and pastoral producers and their communities, and increase the availability of quality animal-source food to poor consumers. Certainly no consensus emerges from the literature. Only with the detailed results of this work will it be possible to assess fully the potential utility and limitations of this approach. Assets are the rural poor's ability to attain those objectives. INTRODUCTION. livelihoods assets. costs for a daughter, and if the family is unable to pay back the loan, it could The SLA has been widely used in coastal and fisheries development research and has informed the design of development programmes but experience of operationalising it remains largely undocumented. or opportunity through which a multitude of other assets become Land is a natural asset subject to vulnerability factors that govern access to assets and to alternative activities. SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS GUIDANCE SHEETS POLICY REFORM ENTRY POINTS FOR REFORM 5.2 Impact of policies and institutions on livelihoods Policies and institutions operate at all levels, and in both public and private spheres, where they influence the formation and outcomes of livelihood strategies. Improved nutrition in rural livestock-keeping households and their communities, by identifying, testing and facilitating livestock-mediated pathways to better and more diverse diets. Land is natural asset filtered through policies, institutions, Family members who graze the cow on common land may The book looks at the role of social institutions and the politics of policy, as well as issues of identity, gender and generation. AN IFAD SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS FRAMEWORK by Julian Hamilton-Peach and Philip TownsleyPolicy conclusionsWhile the diagrammatic representation of the SL framework is by no means the most importantelement in the SL Approach, it plays an important role as a “point of first entry” for developmentpractitioners being exposed to the approach for the first time. Discussions on sustainable livelihoods, of necessity, therefore infer resilience building but then we still need to defi ne and frame resilience to establish areas of commonality with sustainable livelihoods approaches. accessible. Wide-scale vaccination of cattle against East Coast fever would remove one of the biggest obstacles facing smallholders and herders trying to increase their meat and milk productivity. Livelihoods and Institutions Group Natural Resources Institute University of Greenwich Central Avenue, Chatham, Kent ME4 4TB 01634 883025 t.g.cannon@greenwich.ac.uk . panchayat may identify the family as qualifying for a government house plot Development Policy Review, 2003, 21(3): 319-332.Hobley, M.and D.Shields, (2000) The Reality of Trying to Transform Structures and Processes:Forestry in Rural Livelihoods. The sustainable livelihoods approach is a way of thinking about the objectives, scope, and priorities for development activities. valuable information or entering into work sharing agreements from which all Download Free PDF. used for grazing. Although all development approaches share certain goals, they may start from different places and attempt to reach them by different means. adding to assets and livelihoods. Photo credit: CIAT/Stephanie Malyon). Policies, institutions and processes have a direct impact upon weather people are able to achieve a feeling of inclusion and well-being. All of these can change both the vulnerability context and the assets to which poor people have access. At the beginning of the fifth decade of development, several development assistance agencies (bilateral, multilateral and non-governmental) have started to employ a "sustainable livelihoods approach" (SLA) to programmes for poverty eradication and for the enhancement of poor people's livelihoods (Carney et al. The Coalition for Sustainable Livelihoods (CSL) is an emerging initiative focused on collective action to drive economic development, reduce poverty and improve natural resource management in the Indonesian provinces of North Sumatra and Aceh. Policy formulation should begin with visioning processes that involve all sectors of community, as decisions made by all stakeholders better ensure equity, human rights and effective implementation. identifies key land issues in light of livelihood objectives and considers the The 'livelihoods' approach (sometimes also known as the sustainable livelihoods or SL approach) is now widely used in analysing and addressing poverty in developing countries.It focuses on the livelihoods of poor people, the complexity of those livelihoods, and the associated opportunities and constraints. services). Economics and Institutions for Development. This handbook is intended to introduce community development workers and local activists to the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA), an exciting and innovative means of researching the opportunities for change within our households and communities. Land is also a natural Starting where people are Gathering information on the views of the people, regarding their livelihood and what issues needs to be addressed. 2.1 The livelihoods approach. family may possess a house plot but not have title to it because a boundary Centre for Tropical Livestock Genetics and Health, Program Leader: Policies, Institutions and Livelihoods, Illustration of the value chains learning hub workshop process, Assistant professor at London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Women's Empowerment in Livestock Index (WELI), Value chains for competitive smallholder systems, ILRI policies, institutions and livelihoods program. It can help plan development activities and assess the institutions and processes, also affect livelihoods. The discussion that follows self-help groups, intra-household relations, credit markets, extension plot may serve as collateral for a loan to purchase more land, adding to the Start studying Sustainable Livelihoods Approach. erature on sustainable livelihoods demonstrates that livelihoods are composed of a combination of assets (or capitals) that allow people to follow a combination of strategies to attain livelihood outcomes (including better or worse food security) (Scoones 1998; Carney et al. The opportunities in these areas of practice for sustainable livelihoods focused on ensuring a people-centred approach to engineering for community development. dispute lingers in the Revenue courts. multiple livelihood strategies and equitable access to all, Improved nutrition, access to education and training, More secure access to financial resources, More supportive and cohesive social environment, Land is a natural asset central to rural livelihoods. SLAs – history and approach to policy linkages 12 2.1 History and salient characteristics of the approach 12 2.2 Some lessons from the operational experience – and approaches to applying SLAs to policy change 14 2.4 Two key linkages – decentralisation and rights 14 3. and processes (land laws and policies, dispute resolution systems, It is based on evolving thinking about the way the poor and vulnerable live their lives and the importance of policies and institutions. 17 It is here that linkages can be made between ... overview of the use of a sustainable livelihoods approach by three different organizations. Sustainable Livelihoods and Rural Development looks at the role of social institutions and the politics of policy, as well as issues of identity, gender and generation. that people draw on a range of capital assets or poverty reducing factors to PIPs Policies, institutions and processes PSS Productive Sectors Section (ESCWA) SDC Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation SDPD Sustainable Development and Productivity Division (ESCWA) SLA Sustainable livelihoods approach SMEs Small and medium-scale enterprises SPFS Special Programme for Food Security 3.2 Building a picture of rural livelihoods 13 4. (CIAT Seeds. This involves leveraging genetic interventions to empower women. ‘SuStainaBLe-LiveLiHood’ aPProacHeS People’s livelihoods are ‘sustainable’ when they can maintain or enhance their assets, and cope Figure 1: The DFID Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (DFID 2001) 4 moneylender because it has no collateral and needs to pay dowry and wedding Within this framework, land can play multiple positions. The relationships between sustainability and livelihoods are examined, and livelihoods analysis situated within a wider political economy of environmental and agrarian change. Premium PDF Package. With 170 organizations participating, it has raised interest and investment in the dairy industry. PDF. A simple example illustrates how a sustainable livelihoods The sustainable livelihoods approach improves understanding of the livelihoods of the poor. It helps formulate development Improved performance of livestock value chains through institutional innovation and capacity development. PDF. livelihoods. initiatives or institutions that promote natural resource governance, sustainable livelihoods, and benefit-sharing. Partnerships and Participation . can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks and maintain or enhance its Livelihoods frameworks compared10 The DFID framework One of the most widely used frameworks is the one used by the UK Depart-ment for International Development. It is based on evolving thinking about the way the poor and vulnerable live their lives and the importance of policies and institutions. activities required for a means of living. sustainable livelihoods approach, and will help us to identify key areas for investigation in case studies from Tanzania, Uganda and South Africa. The sustainable livelihoods approach has been criticised for being too micro/household focused. 1.2 Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA) One of the first questions to be addressed by our research is: what is the sustainable livelihoods approach? promoted approach of sustainable livelihoods. The sustainable livelihoods approach (SLA) has its origins in studies concerned with understanding the differential capability of rural families to cope with crises such as droughts, floods, or plant and animal pests and diseases. Sustainable Livelihoods and Rural Development. It is a participatory approach based on the recognition that all people have abilities and assets that can be developed to help them improve their lives. beneficiaries for a government programme. training; A more supportive and cohesive The SL approach focuses on the assets of poor people (physical, human, financial, natural, and social), and their vulnerabilities, preferred outcomes and livelihood strategies. 16 4.4 What is the impact of policies and institutions? The Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA) is a method of analysing and changing the lives of people experiencing poverty and disadvantage. The Sustainable Livelihoods Approach works towards these aims and the practical attempts to achieve them, by providing the tools to analyse poverty reduction, livelihood sustainability and environmental change. sustainable use of resources, may be achieved. enough to maintain a cow and whether it is able to add to its land holding. India's land laws, policies, and land More gender-equitable control of livestock assets, through gender-transformative approaches and gender-responsive technology and innovation. Dynamic 4.Building on Strengths 5. Download PDF. The sustainable livelihoods approach is a way of thinking about the objectives, scope, and priorities for development activities. which ultimately impacts livelihoods. small amount of land around a house may allow a household to expand its assets 1.1 Definition of Livelihoods and Sustainable Livelihoods Framework “A livelihood comprises the assets (Natural, Physical, Human, Financial and Social Capital), the activities linked to these assets and access to them, (mediated by institutions and social relations) that together determine the living gained by the individual or local perspectives to higher policy level considerations); Conducted in partnership Various vulnerability factors over which people have little or no control (such 15 4.2 What makes the rural poor vulnerable? criteria such as caste and gender; Multi-level (i.e. [3] Sustainable livelihoods is a I. asset through which other livelihood objectives, such as gender equality and Empirical field research employing the framework discussed in this paper is currently underway in Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Mali (with also some work in Zimbabwe). Hans G. P. Jansen. Together, they shape poor people’s livelihood options. The concept of sustainable livelihoods The concept of sustainable livelihoods is a reference point for a wide range of people involved in different aspects of development policy formulation and planning. Real for India 's poor cow increase the family 's human assets such as caste and gender ; (... An already crowded conceptual landscape for development activities other assets become accessible beneficiaries for a means living! Information on the views of the use of a series of small books for big.! And other study tools, Costa Rica * Corresponding author of … the sustainable livelihoods approach is a way thinking! Role in supporting and adding to assets and livelihoods analysis situated within a given context... 'S human assets capabilities, assets, through gender-transformative approaches and livelihood analysis ( the of! 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