At the time they enlisted, members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints were seeking U.S. government aid for their migration west to the Rocky Mountains and Salt Lake Valley, despite having their previous petitions for redress of grievances denied. It took three weeks to raise the five companies of men. His assignment was to march them to California and to build a wagon road along the way. He wrote to the enlistees, that the money was a "peculiar manifestation of the kind providence of our Heavenly Father at this time. " Each company was authorized four women as laundresses, "receiving rations and other allowances given to the laundresses of our army. Raising a group of able-bodied men would be difficult. The battalion's march and service was instrumental in helping the US secure much of the American Southwest, including new lands in several Western states, especially the Gadsden Purchase of 1853 of much of southern Arizona. . In 1874 the Navajo Indians fearing the Mormon settlement of their lands went on the warpath to expel these settlers. Young wrote a letter to the Saints living in Garden Grove, in which he justified the call-up and asked for their help: The President wants to do us good and secure our confidence. The Mormon Battalion, a force of some six hundred recruited by the United States Army in Pottawattamie County, Iowa, became witnesses, if not prime movers, of many historical events during the westward expansion of the United States between 1846 and 1855. Mormon Battalion Mountain is a summit in San Bernardino County and has an elevation of 2316 feet. Brigham Young, the President of the Quorum … Depicting members of the Mormon Battalion on their arrival at the Pacific Ocean near San Luis Rey, California on 27 January 1847 after trekking 2,138 miles down the Santa Fe Trail and across the southwestern deserts at the beginning of the Mexican-American War.  Four women would eventually complete the cross-continental trek. He had a request from President Polk to enlist a battalion of 500 volunteers to fight in the Mexican War. Toting wood replica muskets, ammo bags, belts, buckles and the jerky and biscuits the original soldiers ate, cub scouts in Packs 701, 704, 712, 714, 741 and 787 retraced five miles of the battalion’s path along the trail known as the Great Southern Overland Route of 1849 near Julian. Realizing his Mexican troops were outnumbered and the Mormons had superior weapons, the commander abandoned Tucson and took his men to Mission San Xavier nine miles up stream to avoid a fight. "The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: A legacy of conflict". He said the experience opened his eyes about the sacrifices made by the Mormon Battalion. When approximately 330 people trudged into town on January 29, 1847, the locals certainly noticed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. The Mormon Battalion had orders to follow Kearny to California, though by a different route, farther south — essentially the route by today’s Interstate 10. When they encountered the Imperial Sand Dunes, the men marched south into Mexico, then back north and west, crossing desert and … When they finally reached the Pacific Ocean on January 29, 1847, they were overjoyed. The battalion was a volunteer unit of over 500 soldiers, nearly all LDS men with regular army officers, under the Mormon Battalion Mountain, a low-lying mountain within San Bernardino County's Glen Helen Regional Park at the mouth of Cajon Canyon, where in April 1847 a detachment of the Mormon Battalion arrived from Los Angeles with the assignment to set up camp, build a fort or redoubt and guard the pass from any Indian raids. Hiking the path of the Mormon Battalion on the portion of the Butterfield Stage route from the Christmas Camp, at North Tank, through Butterfield Pass, in … Summit added by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names 12-May-1999. While some men quickly volunteered, Young had to persuade and cajole many enlistees. Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press. A Mormon Fort was built at Lee's Ferry, and the Mormon soldiers made camp at Moenave spring. Among the trekkers was 9-year-old Saiji Clark of Oceanside. Concise History of the Mormon Battalion, by Sergeant Daniel Tyler.Before entering upon the History of the Mormon Battalion, it seems necessary to offer some explanation of the previous condition of the Latter-day Saints; otherwise the reader unacquainted with those facts would scarcely be able to appreciate the situation of the people at the time of the enlistment of the Battalion. Fort Moore Pioneer Memorial, the largest bas-relief military monument in the United States, on Hill Street in downtown Los Angeles, dedicated in 1958 at the site of historic Fort Moore built by the Mormon Battalion in 1847, decommissioned in 1853. Mormon Battalion Museum Visitors Center, lower level This Is the Place Heritage Park The march also opened a southern wagon route to California. The Mormon Battalion made the longest march on foot in U.S. military history: 2,000 miles. Pioneer Pathways to Zion, 1846–1890. They camped among the PotawatomiIndians near what became Omaha, Nebraska. Copyright © 1987-2021 by Peakbagger.com. The Mormons stood guard to prevent further bloodshed while the Luiseño people gathered their numerous dead into a common grave.. Following orders from an ambitious U.S. President, the Mormon Battalion marched 2,000 miles through a mostly uncharted American Southwest. OCLC.  The Mormon Battalion was mustered into volunteer service on 16 July 1846 as part of the Army of the West under General Kearny, a tough and seasoned veteran. There is war between Mexico and the United States, to whom California must fall a prey, and if we are the first settlers the old citizens cannot have a Hancock or Missouri pretext to mob the Saints. Mormon Rocks, northwest of San Bernardino, California, in the Cajon Pass, just west of. For years afterward, some Mormons viewed the Mormon Battalion as an unjust imposition and as an act of persecution by the United States (Carrington 1857, p. 5). June of 1846 found 15,000 Latter-day Saints strung out across Iowa in a half dozen or more makeshift encampments. The Mormon Battalion Monument at the Utah State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah. In 1846, with the outbreak of the Mexican War, United Statas President James K. Little arrived in Washington D.C. on 21 May 1846, only eight days after Congress had declared war on Mexico. Into the Wilderness, 1846 Routes through California, 1846–1848 Route to the Great Salt Lake, 1847 The Trail in the 1850s From Wagon Roads to Railroads The thing is from above for our own good.. The Mormon Battalion. Brigham Young, the President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, sent Elder Jesse C. Little to Washington, D.C., to seek assistance from the federal government for the Mormon Pioneers fleeing for their lives from the mobs of Illinois. 20 talking about this. , Approaching Tucson, in future Arizona, the battalion nearly had a battle with a small detachment of provisional Mexican soldiers on 16 December 1846. Historic sites associated with the battalion include: Monuments relating to the battalion are also located in New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado, and trail markers have been placed on segments of the battalion route between Mt. Mormon Battalion Mountain, a low-laying mountain within San Bernardino County's Glen Helen Regional Park at the mouth of Cajon Canyon where in April of 1847 a detachment of the Mormon Battalion arrived from Los Angeles with the assignment to set up camp and guard the pass from any Indian raids. Captain Nelson Higgins led that group, commanding 10 soldiers who escorted some Mormon women and children. The Mormon Battalion was the only military unit in U.S. history organized on a strictly religious basis. The most significant service the battalion provided in California and during the war, was as a reliable unit under Cooke that General Kearny could rely on to block Fremont's mutinous bid to control California. A few days later Lieutenant Andrew Jackson Smith, West Point Class of 1838, arrived and assumed temporary command of the battalion with the Mormons' consent.  Pennsylvania Army officer and attorney Thomas L. Kane offered the Mormons his advice and assistance. Allen's instructions were to recruit five companies of men who were to receive the "pay, rations, and other allowances given to other infantry volunteers. Church Resources A few of the men escorted John C. Fremont back east for his court-martial. The public approval of Brigham Young and other members of the Twelve were critical to gain men's enlistment. authorized to receive into service as volunteers a few hundred of the Mormons who are now on their way to California, with a view to conciliate them, attach them to our country, and prevent them from taking part against us. Their enlistment would be a public relations victory for the church, demonstrating additional evidence of its loyalty to the United States. "The Mormon Battalion: U.S. Army of the West, 1846-1848". For the next four months and 1,100 miles, Cooke led the battalion across some of the most arduous terrain in North America. 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